A comprehensive literature review and thermodynamic optimization of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of the Ag–Bi, Ag–Cu, Ag–Ni, Bi–Cu, and Bi–Ni binary systems are presented. CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD)-type thermodynamic optimization was carried out to reproduce all available and reliable experimental phase equilibrium and thermodynamic data. The modified quasichemical model was used to model the liquid solution. The compound energy formalism was utilized to describe the Gibbs energies of all terminal solid solutions and intermetallic compounds. A self-consistent thermodynamic database for the Ag–Bi, Ag–Cu, Ag–Ni, Bi–Cu, and Bi–Ni binary subsystems of the Ag–Bi–Cu–Ni quaternary system was developed. This database can be used as a guide for research and development of lead-free solders.
Journal of Electronic Materials – Springer Journals
Published: May 1, 2018
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