THEORETICALLY PREDICTED RELATIVE WEAR RESISTANCE
IN OXIDE-CARBON REFRACTORIES
V. A. Perepelitsyn
and V. G. Sivash
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5, pp. 87 – 91, May, 2003.
Relative wear resistance is calculated theoretically for 50 inorganic oxides, silicates, and graphite. In terms of
the energy density and energy strength for a unit macrovolume of material, relative fracture energies are pre
dicted for high-melting simple and complex oxides, ortho- and metasilicates. The relative effect of antioxidant
elements on the resistance of oxide-carbon refractories is considered.
Innovative technological developments in the production
of high-quality oxide-carbon refractory components and im-
provement of their slag resistance, thermal stability, and re-
sistance to oxidation and to corrosive attack by molten metal
are to a large extent determined by the correct selection of
oxide, carbon, and antioxidant components. At present, a
range of components (more than 40) have found application
in the technology of carbon-containing materials.
A survey of the patent literature has shown that structu-
rally simple oxides (MgO, CaO, ZrO
) and complex
oxide compounds such as spinel, zirconates, and aluminates
are used as refractory oxide components. Among carbon
components, the most welcome material is crystalline natural
graphite; however, its commercial recovery is far from satis
fying the industrial demand. For this reason, a route to over
coming this limitation is the use of more readily available
synthetic carbon materials with a macrocrystalline graphite
structure. Among the antioxidant additives that serve to pro
tect carbon-containing ingredients from oxidation, prefe
rence is given to metals and metal alloys with a high affinity
In the world practice, the most popular antioxidant me
tals are aluminum, magnesium, chromium, silicon, zirco
nium, nickel, and titanium
. Among alloys, the highest
efficiency has been recognized in aluminum-magnesium,
aluminum, calcium-zirconium, and iron-silicon (of the ferro
) materials, and also iron in pelletized or
[3 – 7]. The additives inhibit oxidation of
carbon-containing materials since they are much easier to
oxidize and are deposited in pores of the refractory materials.
Metal additives (iron pellets of diameter 0.2–5mmadded at
1 – 15 wt.% or metal powders, at 0.5 – 5.0 wt.%) improve
the properties of periclase-carbon refractories.
compositions and production technologies for periclase-car-
bon refractories have been developed using kish (refining
foam) as the carbon-metal component, also iron-carbon alloys,
ferrophosphorus, and other antioxidant additives [8 – 11].
For correct selection of the material composition of
high-resistance oxide-carbon refractories, knowledge of the
theoretical foundations of wear resistance of minerals and
understanding of the role (either positive or negative) of each
component are necessary.
Earlier [12 – 16], mineralogic (phase) criteria — energy
density and energy strength — were proposed as guidelines
for the development of high-resistance refractories; based on
these energy-structure criteria, more than 20 new refractories
The energy density E
, is defined as the ratio of
the Gibbs energy (at a given temperature) or other appropri
ate principal thermodynamic constant of a mineral (a com
pound, or a chemical element) to its molar volume:
=–(DH – TDS )
is the Gibbs energy (or a thermodynamic poten
tial for the formation of a compound from elements) at a
given temperature, kJ/mole; V is the molar volume of the
/mole; d is the true density of the compound,
; M is the molar mass of the compound, g/mole; DH is
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 44, No. 3, 2003
1083-4877/03/4403-0165$25.00 © 2003 Plenum Publishing Corporation
VOSTIO Joint-Stock Company, Ekaterinburg, Russia; Russian
Joint-Stock Company “Unified energy system of Russia” (RAO
“UES of Russia”), Moscow, Russia.
Poland Patent No. 124524, U.S. Patent No. 4521357.
Japan Application No. 61-136966.
Japan Application No. 57-23667, Japan Application No. 55-162478.
Japan Application No. 55-162478.