THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE CREATION OF HIGHLY EFFICIENT
REFRACTORIES ON THE BASIS OF SHS TECHNOLOGY
S. Sh. Kazhikenova,
O. A. Nurkenov,
and B. N. Satbaev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 2, pp. 30 – 36, February 2011.
Original article submitted December 5, 2010.
The theoretical principles behind the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory materials are
established. The physico-chemical characteristics of these materials are studied and the technology for their
production is optimized. The thermochemical and kinetic parameters of the solid-phase combustion of sys-
tems based on fireclay, chromite, magnesium sulfate, and aluminum are examined; the phase composition and
thermodynamic and physico-mechanical characteristics of the combustion products are determined and for-
mulations are developed for refractory concretes and gunites.
Keywords: self-propagating high-temperature synthesis; SHS-technology; refractory materials; chro-
mium-oxide materials; chromium-corundum refractories; aluminothermy; heat resistance; mechanical
strength at high temperatures.
Successful completion of the “Federal Program for
Making Kazakhstan one of the Fifty Most Competitive Na-
tions in the World” entails the introduction of innovative
technologies to foster the growth of its industries. Speeding
up production processes and finding innovative ways to pro-
mote growth of the metallurgical, chemical, petrochemical,
and cement industries will be impossible without the creation
of new materials with excellent service properties. Among
these materials are the refractories used to line high-tempera-
ture process units such as furnaces. Increasing interest is be-
ing shown in the production of high-quality refractories with
specified properties. In connection with this, exhaustive re-
search should be undertaken to develop and introduce envi-
ronmentally clean technologies that save energy and other
resources while helping to improve the production of refrac-
tories based on the raw materials available in Kazakhstan.
The Republic of Kazakhstan currently imports alumo-
silicate and magnesian refractories from Russia, the Ukraine,
China, Austria, and other countries. To supply its own
refractories, the Republic needs to develop its own
refractories industry to the point where it can offer a compet-
itive product both to the internal market and to customers
abroad. Such a development will in turn require the estab-
lishment of a scientific foundation for the industry, creation
of the necessary technologies, and, in particular, realization
of the production of unshaped and shaped refractories that
can withstand substantial mechanical and thermal loads at
high temperatures while providing the longest possible ser-
vice for the linings of metallurgical equipment.
We analyzed general and specific issues that surround
the subject of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis
(SHS) as a method of producing alloys and composites. The
theoretical principles of SHS and the laws and mechanisms
of combustion in SHS systems were laid out and the
thermochemical and kinetic aspects of the interactions be-
tween the components during the synthesis of new materials
in the combustion regime were examined [1 – 4].
The rate of combustion was measured by the thermocou-
ple method. The shear strength of the refractory products was
determined along with the resistance of the refractory materi-
als to the corrosive action of melts. The intermediate and end
products of pyrolysis were identified through chemical and
x-ray-phase analysis. Refractory specimens were tested for
compressive strength on a special laboratory press and the
breaking load was automatically recorded. Refractoriness
was determined at 1100 – 1750°C in increments of 50°C,
with the increments also being reduced to 20°C for a more
accurate determination of this characteristic. The measure-
ments were made with tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The
porosity of the specimens was determined on the basis of wa-
One of the main directions being taken in research on
new refractories for metallurgical equipment is the creation
of new high-durability materials that can be classified as
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 1, May, 2011
1083-4877/11/05201-0055 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Karaganda State University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan.