Geoheritage, geoconservation, and geotourism studies are of increasing interest worldwide because of their scientific, societal, cultural, and aesthetic value. Volcanic areas (whether active, dormant, or extinct) are exciting targets for such studies. Mid-sixth century rock-cut caves in Deccan basalt on the island of Elephanta, in the Mumbai harbour, are the finest in western India. The Elephanta Caves contain exquisite religious sculptures related to the Hindu god Shiva. They are a protected monument of the Archaeological Survey of India and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but no geological-volcanological account of them exists. Here, we illustrate typical and well-exposed hummocky pahoehoe lava flows with three-tiered flow lobes and toes, upper crustal vesicular banding and pipe vesicles along lobe bases, and tumuli with inflation clefts and squeeze-ups, from the Elephanta Caves monument. The field observations and simple calculations indicate formation by endogenous growth (inflation), as for pahoehoe flows in Hawaii and Iceland. Interestingly, despite differences in flow volumes of orders of magnitude between Hawaiian, Icelandic, and Deccan flows, their morphologies, internal structures, and even the scale of these structures are identical. We interpret this as indicating similarly low effusion-rate but much longer-lasting eruptions for the Deccan compared to the other two. We show that the Elephanta Caves, a world-renowned historical, artistic, and religious monument, are also a monument for geology and volcanology, and therefore, the need for their conservation is even greater.
Geoheritage – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 24, 2016
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera