ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 5, pp. 867!873. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
Original Russian Text + I.V. Kalashnikova, N.D. Ivanova, T.B. Tennikova, 2008, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 5,
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
The Use of Monolithic Polymeric Sorbents
to Simulate Virus!Cell Interactions
I. V. Kalashnikova, N. D. Ivanova, and T. B. Tennikova
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received April 2, 2008
Abstract-A simple virus3cell complementary model system can be obtained using polymer-analogous reac-
tions of the epoxy groups of glycidyl methacrylate3ethylene glycol dimethacrylate monolithic macroporous
polymeric support and of the carboxy groups of styrene3methyl methacrylate polymeric nanospheres.
The effect of thus designed microenvironment on the affinity binding parameters of virus-mimicking
nanoparticles with the functionalized sorbent surface is studied by high-performance monolithic disk affinity
Diversity of surface properties of cells and viruses
causes the occurrence of different mechanisms of
their adsorption interaction via highly specific (af-
fine) or weaker nonspecific (ionic, hydrophobic,
coordination, etc.) bonding. These mechanisms can
be simulated by introduction of different specific
ligands into model systems.
Original macroporous monolithic sorbents ,
fabricated as thin disks (BIA Separations, Ljubljana,
Slovenia) , as well as chromatographic processes
realized with these stationary phases [high-perfor-
mance monolithic disk affinity chromatography
(HPMDAC) and chromatography on ultrashort
monolithic columns] offer unique opportunities for
studying specific complexation . In other
words, HPMDAC is an ideal method allowing
adequate simulation of interactions of biocomple-
ments and assessment of the effect of the micro-
environment on these interactions. Furthermore, it
was demonstrated recently that monolithic sorbent
based on glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)3ethylene
glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) copolymer is well
suitable to realize interfacial processes proceeding
via affine binding of large particles  such as
viruses [8, 9].
Functionality of biological macroparticles (cells,
viruses) is controlled by their complex multilevel
structure, which could be modeled through succes-
sive combination of different (macro)molecules. In
our previous experiments, the components (phos-
pholipids, carbohydrates, and proteins) composing
cell walls were introduced into surface structure of
the monolithic GMA3EDMA sorbent, while the
nanoparticles with finely tuned surface structure,
close in its composition to that of the membrane of
the virus attacking the cell, were in the mobile phase.
The virus-mimicking nanoparticles were prepared on
the basis of polymeric nanospheres with a size close
to that of human viruses.
Construction of such model systems adequately
simulating natural ones and allowing examination of
the adsorption behavior of viruses is a topical prob-
lem in studying mechanisms of their interaction with
a cell. Results obtained in these studies can be used
as a basis in developing procedure of affine separa-
tion of virus particles from native biological fluids.
Additionally, data obtained for such model systems
can be useful in selecting promising targets in de-
veloping new antiviral drugs.
In the experiments we used trypsin (TR) and
soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) from PanEco
(Russia); glucosamine hydrochloride (GA), Schiff
reagent, and ninhydrin from Sigma3Aldrich Chemie
GmbH (Germany); and phosphatidylethanolamine
(PTEA) from Tekhnologiya3Standart (Russia).
To activate carboxy groups of the polystyrene
latex particles, we used water-soluble 1-ethyl-(3-di-