THE USE OF ARTIFICIAL CERAMIC BINDERS
BASED ON THERMALLY ACTIVATED HIGH-ALUMINA
RAW MATERIALS IN A SEMI-DRY PRESSING TECHNOLOGY
A. S. Zuev,
V. A. Doroganov,
and E. I. Evtushenko
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 17 – 20, April, 2012.
Original article submitted April 4, 2011.
Results are presented from feasibility studies of the use of artificial ceramic binders based on activated
high-alumina raw materials to make refractory materials. It was found that specimens based on heat-treated
binders have better indices than HCBS-based specimens and factory prototypes.
Keywords: artificial ceramic binders, HCBSs (highly concentrated binding suspensions), refractory products,
high-alumina fireclay, pressing pressure.
The refractories industry is now developing along a path
that is resulting in continual increases in the quality and du-
rability of refractories. Thus, the unit consumption of refrac-
tory materials and overall material use in industrial processes
that employ refractory products are both steadily decreasing.
The service life of high-temperature equipment can be in-
creased significantly by making the correct choices for the
materials and technologies used to line them and by finding
ways to make those materials last longer. The problem just
alluded to can be solved by creating essentially new
refractories and by using new technologies to expand the ex
isting range of standard refractories and elevating their qual
ity. One such technology in particular involves the produc
tion of artificial ceramic binders (ACBs). The authors of 
studied the properties of high-alumina ACBs thermally acti
vated at different temperatures. It was established that the
combination of thermal activation and mechanochemical ac
tivation makes it possible to control the properties of binding
suspensions and obtain different types of refractory ceramic
This article presents results from studies of the feasibility
of using ACBs to produce refractories by a semi-dry method
of forming. High-alumina fireclay made by the Semiluki
Refractories Plant (grade ShVG-66, 68 – 70% Al
used as the filler and an ACB of a high-alumina composition
content no lower than 68%) obtained on the basis of
fireclay thermally activated at 900, 1050, and 1200°C was
used as the binder. For comparison, we also prepared
HCBS-based specimens composed of high-alumina fireclay
ShVG-66 that was thermally stabilized at 1500°C in a rotary
In the first stage of the investigation, we examined the
effect of the amount of binder used on the main physico-me-
chanical characteristics of the specimens formed by the
semi-dry method. The composition of the specimens is
shown in Table 1.
The values for binder content were chosen from the
range 20 – 40% because a reduced moisture content and a
deficit of binder keep the bulk refractory from being shaped
properly when the amount of suspension used is less than
20%. If suspension content is increased to a value above
40%, the specimens undergo spontaneous deformation after
pressing due to the high moisture content that they had dur
ing the forming operation.
Specimens (cylinders with a diameter and height of 36
mm) of the experimental compositions were formed at a
pressure of 60 MPa on a laboratory hydraulic press. This cor
responds to the regime used in the factory to form similar re
fractory products of grade MLS-62. After being formed, the
specimens were dried in a drying cabinet at 110°C, annealed
at 1450°C, and held at the maximum temperature for 2 h.
The main physico-mechanical characteristics of the speci
mens (apparent density r
, open porosity P
compressive strength s
, shrinkage Dl) were determined af
ter annealing. The characteristics are shown in Fig. 1.
An increase in binder content to 30% is accompanied by
an increase in the specimens’ values of r
value of P
decreases in this case. An increase in binder
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 53, No. 2, July, 2012
1083-4877/12/05302-0097 © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Semiluki Refractories Plant, Semiluki, Voronezh Oblast, Russia.
Belgorod State Technological University, Belgorod, Russia.