During the past decade, we have learnt that the most common DNA modification, 5-methylcytosine (5mC), playing crucial roles in development and disease, is not stable but can be actively reversed to its unmodified form via enzymatic catalysis involving the TET enzymes. These ground-breaking discoveries have been achieved thanks to technological advances in the detection of the oxidized forms of 5mC and to the boldness of individual scientists. The TET enzymes require molecular oxygen for their catalysis, making them important targets for hypoxia research. They also require special cofactors which enable additional levels of regulation. Moreover, mutations and other genetic alterations in TETs are found, especially in myeloid malignances. This review focuses on the kinetic and inhibitory properties of the TET enzymes and the role of TETs in cellular differentiation and transformation and in cancer.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 28, 2017
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