Using a program developed at the NLISW JSC, heat losses through the wall of a steel-teeming ladle for different types of refractory materials and lining design and the surface temperature of the ladle jacket are calculated. It is shown, both computationally and experimentally, that using efficient heat insulators for the wall lining of steel ladle, the liquid-metal outlet temperature in the converter can be decreased by 10 – 15°C.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 17, 2004
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