Multigrid cross-correlation digital particle image velocimetry (MCCDPIV) is used to investigate the stability and structure of low Reynolds number axisymmetric jets. The in-plane velocities, out-of-plane vorticity and some of the components of the Reynolds stress tensor are measured. Two Reynolds numbers based on the orifice outlet diameter are examined (680 and 1,030) at two different positions: one close to the orifice, ranging from 2D 0 to 5D 0 (D 0 is the orifice diameter); and the other further from the orifice, ranging from 10D 0 to 14.4D 0. The results show that the lower Reynolds number jet (Re=680) is marginally unstable in the near-orifice region and is best described as laminar. Further downstream some intermittent structures are observed in the jet, and the growth in integrated turbulent kinetic energy with axial position indicates that the jet is also unstable in this region. For the higher Reynolds number jet (Re=1,030) the increasing size and intensity of vortical structures in the jet in the near-orifice region observed from the MCCDPIV data and the growth in integrated turbulent kinetic energy indicate that the jet is unstable. Further downstream this jet is best described as transitional or turbulent. From flow visualisation images in the near-orifice region it seems that, for both Reynolds numbers, shear layer roll-up occurs when the jet exits the orifice and enters the quiescent fluid in the tank, resulting in vortical structures that appear to grow as the jet proceeds. This is indicative of instability in both cases and is consistent with previous flow visualisation studies of low Reynolds number round jets. Discrepancies observed between the flow visualisation results and the MCCDPIV data is addressed. On the basis of flow visualisation results it is generally assumed that round jets are unstable at very low Reynolds number, however the present work shows that this assertion may be incorrect.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 23, 2004
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