Calcium (Ca2+) ions are prominent cell signaling regulators that carry information for a variety of cellular processes and are critical for neuronal survival and function. Furthermore, Ca2+ acts as a prominent second messenger that modulates divergent intracellular cascades in the nerve cells. Therefore, nerve cells have developed intricate Ca2+ signaling pathways to couple the Ca2+ signal to their biochemical machinery. Notably, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis greatly relies on the rapid redistribution of Ca2+ ions into the diverse subcellular organelles which serve as Ca2+ stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is well established that Ca2+ released into the neuronal cytoplasm is pumped back into the ER by the sarco-/ER Ca2+ ATPase 2 (SERCA2), a P-type ion-motive ATPase that resides on the ER membrane. Even though the SERCA2 is constitutively expressed in nerve cells, its precise role in brain physiology and pathophysiology is not well-characterized. Intriguingly, SERCA2-dependent Ca2+ dysregulation has been implicated in several disorders that affect cognitive function, including Darier’s disease, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cerebral ischemia. The current review summarizes knowledge on the expression pattern of the different SERCA2 isoforms in the nervous system, and further discusses evidence of SERCA2 dysregulation in various neuropsychiatric disorders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature review that specifically highlights the critical role of the SERCA2 in the brain. Advancing knowledge on the role of SERCA2 in maintaining neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis may ultimately lead to the development of safer and more effective pharmacotherapies to combat debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 16, 2018
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