1067-4136/03/3406- $25.00 © 2003
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 34, No. 6, 2003, pp. 438–440. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 6, 2003, pp. 478–480.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2003 by Kulagin, Zaitsev.
In forest stands located in the areas affected by
industrial discharges, changes in the aboveground
organs of woody plants are the ﬁrst to appear. For
example, in conifer plantations, the morphometric
parameters of needles (Pristupa and Mazepa, 1987) and
stem structure (Spesivtsev, 1998) are altered, and the
radial increment (Ziganshin, 1996) and apical growth
(Mazepa and Pristupa, 1986) are decreased. This
impairs the vital state of the stands and leads to prema-
ture death of both individual trees and entire stands.
However, the speciﬁc structural features of the root sys-
tems of woody plants sometimes prevent the deleteri-
ous impact of industrial environmental pollution from
destroying tree stands (Yarmishko, 1997).
To study the resistance of the larch
Dyl. to petrochemical pollution, we studied the charac-
teristics of root system formation in larch trees growing
in the Ufa industrial center (UIC) in 1998–2000. We
studied forest cultures of
in buffer forest
stands of the UIC whose ages varied from 40 to 50 years.
The stands were located in the zone affected by dis-
charge from Ufa oil reﬁneries.
located 40 km away from the UIC served as a relative
control (the predominant directions of the transfer of air
masses in the region are southern and southwestern).
Table 1 shows some taxonometric parameters of the for-
est stands studied. A total of seven test plots were set.
The characteristics of soils (Table 2) were estimated by
standard methods (
The characteristics of root system formation in
under conditions of UIC were studied by
the method of monoliths (Kolesnikov, 1962; Kra-
sil’nikov, 1983). Monoliths 20 cm in length, 20 cm in
width, and 10 cm in height were used. A total of six soil
m in size were set between rows 50 cm
away from the trunks of the model trees. We divided
roots into the following fractions: less than 1 mm in
diameter, absorbing; 1–3 mm, semiskeletal (conduct-
ing); and more than 3 mm, skeletal (conducting) (Rakh-
teenko, 1952; Kalinin, 1989). Root air-dry weight was
determined by means of laboratory scales (Zaklacy
Mechaniki Precyzyjnej, Gdansk, Poland). Root density
in a 10-cm soil layer in the
calculated per unit area of the horizontal surface (g/m
We found that, under the conditions of industrial
environmental pollution, the total weights of roots of all
diameters increased in all soil horizons except for the
horizons 20–30, 40–60, and 90–100 cm (Fig. 1). The
root density in a 1-m root-inhabited soil layer in the
polluted zone was greater than in the control zone
(1439.56 and 1082.68 g/m
, respectively). The root den-
sity was maximum in horizon 10–20 cm (351.85 g/m
the polluted zone and in horizon 20–30 cm (349.25 g/m
The Root System of
Dyl. in the Polluted
Environment of the Ufa Industrial Center
A. Yu. Kulagin and G. A. Zaitsev
Institute of Biology, Ufa Scientiﬁc Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Oktyabrya 69,
Ufa, 450054 Bashkortostan, Russia
Received May 7, 2002
: root system,
Dyl., petrochemical pollution.
Some taxonometric parameters* and relative vital states** of
stands in the Ufa industrial center
Mean height, m
of trunks per
1 9L1P 45 13.79 13.65 2325 SWK
2 8L2P 45 16.59 14.56 1425 WK
3 10L 50 20.91 25.23 1133 HL
* Test plots were described according to Sukachev (1966).
** The relative vital state of the forest stands was determined according to Alekseev (1990).
*** HL, healthy; WK, weakened; SWK, substantially weakened.