Geotourism can be defined as visits to locations that fall within the Bgeoheritage^ category, whether natural or man-made. This underscores all the definitions of this phenomenon in the literature. The notions of the role and agency of typical geotourist motivations are much discussed in the definition of geotourism (i.e., cognitive orientation aimed at acquiring or expanding knowledge of geoscience, the history of Earth and geomorphological processes, and the like). Among the conceptual approaches in the field are those that emphasize more the final cognitive results of travel to geosites (in the form of the acquisition of knowledge on geoheritage by tourists) than the potential initial geotourist motivations of tourists. This article considers the picturesque esthetic of a landscape as the sole, main, or an important pull factor for geotourism and even whether this esthetic is necessary to transform a geosite into a tourist attraction. The picturesqueness of a landscape has varying importance for different categories of geotourists, from Bunaware geotourists^ to Bgeoexperts.^ The iconic role of geotourist landscapes is illustrated by the Cretaceous landscape of the north-coast cliffs of Rügen (Germany), the rauks of Gotland and Fårö (Sweden), and the Trotternish Ridge with the Old Man of Storr on the Isle of Skye (Scotland). . . . . . . Keywords Picturesque Geotourism Geotourist landscapes Rügen Gotland Fårö Skye The concept of Bgeotourism^ is well established in tourism sci- geotourism. It is precisely these practical/applied aspects that ence, as evidenced by the numerous scientific and mass-market have dominated the contemporary literature on the subject, works published internationally each year. Ever more destina- leaving theoretical considerations (it would appear) slightly tions are being classified as geosites, and this growing interest behind. in geotourism has led to the establishment of geoparks and the The subject of this paper is the concept of picturesqueness consideration of their role in tourism studies, nature conservation, of landscape in relation to the phenomenon of geotourism. I sustainable development, and global geoconservation initiatives will attempt to answer the question of the extent to which this (UNESCO, 2016). deeply humanistic and subjective feature of the landscape, Those authors who address geotourism define it in a fun- treated variously as a view, a characteristic frame, or as the damentally similar way. The protection and interpretation of physiognomy of the geographical environment, is the sole, geoheritage as well as questions related to ownership, sharing, principal, or major pull factor for geotourism or a necessary and management are widely discussed and publicized (mainly condition to transform a geosite into a tourist attraction. The through geoparks, see: (Burek & Prosser, 2008; Errami et al., paper reviews case studies on motivations for visiting geosites 2015; Farsani et al., 2012)), reflecting the practical aspects of to determine if and how this form of cognitive travel is actu- ally Bunique^ and different in this respect from other forms of tourism. I further endeavor to link geotourism with classical It should be stressed, however, that there is no single widely accepted definition of geotourism. The major research challenges of geotourism are tourism concepts, understood as a phenomenon based on vi- defined by Dowling and Newsome (Dowling & Newsome, 2005). sual experience, and developed at the interface between social sciences, cultural sciences, and environmental psychology. In * Dagmara Chylińska order to illustrate the iconographic role that landscapes play in firstname.lastname@example.org widely meant culture and in geotourism, I have employed selected examples of places to illustrate the subject matter Institute of Geography and Regional Development, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Uniwersytecki 1, 50-137 Wrocław, Poland discussed. Geoheritage Picturesqueness of Landscapes: nature, permeated with seriousness and serenity, subordinate the Picturesque and the Painterly to humans. Or, it was understood via the work of Salvator Rosa, in whose paintings nature was above all else spontane- The picturesque and the sublime are two modern esthetic cat- ous, unpredictable, and full of uncontrollable elements. egories, which emerged from eighteenth-century English Subsequently, the Romantics discovered in natural landscapes landscape esthetics. They dominated how nature was con- the potential to express the sublime. The distant observer of the ceived of and perceived at that time. The Bsublime,^ according scenic views of the eighteenth century was replaced by a per- to observations by Edmund Burke explained in his A son no longer separated from the fascination of nature, whose Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the vivacity and vitality can devour them at any moment. Sublime and Beautiful published in 1757, is strongly associ- In sum, observing the picturesque of landscapes means ated with some specific landscape visual features and humans’ much more than observing simply the beauty. Gilpin wrote in response to them in terms of a sense of astonishment, fear, (Gilpin, 1792) (p. 47) that Bevery admirer of picturesque beauty pain, or acknowledging some landscapes as rough and ob- is an admirer also of the beauty of virtue^ and he explained scure (Hose, 2010). In a sense, the fear reflects here a special extensively the difference between Bpicturesque^ and Bbeauty^ kind of awe and this comes from confronting people with and the relationship between Bpicturesque^ and Bsublime.^ something more powerful than themselves (Bedell, 2001). The picturesque means also searching for cultural connec- Thus, the sense of sublime might be a source for the pictur- tions between a view and history, religion, literature, visual esque of landscapes. Moreover, the notion of a picturesque arts, or any other products of culture. It refers not only to landscape is strictly related to paintings ((Burwick, 2015), p. esthetic values but also philosophical, symbolic, and meta- 207) and is more focused on the natural composition of a view, phorical ones as well. its harmony, as well as on colors, textures, and the interplay of Consequently, there are several approaches to describing light and shade over specific landscape elements. As the notion of picturesque. The words of William Mason will Frydryczak writes (Frydryczak, 2013), it was from a fascina- perhaps suffice: Bpicturesque means pleasing to the eye, it is tion with painting landscapes that wider interest in the natural remarkable because of its uniqueness, it is as impressive as a landscape was born and it was the development of esthetic painting, it can be presented in the form of a picture, it presents interests that gave rise to the development of landscape paint- a good theme for painting, and finally, it is a landscape worth ing. Picturesque as an esthetic category establishes a Bpic- painting^ ((Frydryczak, 2013), p. 100). ture-rooted^ perception of the world, which inspires and also finds expression in poetry, painting, and art. A new sensitivity emerged among observers, which was orientated not only to- Geotourism and the Notion of the Picturesque wards the original, the individual, and the natural but also in Landscape towards the wild, the unobtrusive, and the menacing. The beauty of nature began to be forfeited over beauty of art; When describing any form of tourism, the question is wheth- marveling at nature was also accompanied by reflections on er we define the phenomenon based on the characteristics of the sublime, spontaneity, and genius of nature (Frydryczak, the visited destination or the motivations that drives travelers 2013). Moreover, picturesque landscapes at this time were to undertake the journey. In the first case, we characterize as concerned not only with beauty but also with highlighting geotourism any journey, the aim of which is to witness the the dramaturgy of nature: its unusualness, severity, variability, artifact, place, or region included in the category of and dynamic ways—anything to stimulate the imagination. geoheritage, illustrating the often groundbreaking events in As it can be seen, the picturesque is not an easy concept to the history of the Earth or selected geomorphological define unequivocally. At the time when the picturesque first shaped the sensitivity of nature observers (the first view 3 See disputes concerning the definition of cultural tourism and culture as an seekers, those whose emotions were stirred by scenery, true object of its interest (e.g., (Richards, 1996)). It is worth noting that in the case of geotourism, the tourist attraction can be Blandscape lovers^), it was understood either through the prism both specific, unique phenomena of an inanimate nature as well as the most of Claude Lorrain’s paintings, which presented harmonious typical phenomena which clearly and legibly illustrate selected geomorpho- logical processes specific to a given region or of high educational value. Here, In the UK, landscape painting began in the late eighteenth century inspired geoheritage is not confined to natural objects or processes; it also includes by Salvator Rosa and Claude Lorrain. Landscapes such as the Lake District, cultural artifacts whose nature is natural but whose form is the result of human the Wye Valley, the West Country, and some parts of Scotland came to be activity (see (Gorman, 2007), p. 7 and Fig. 2 therein). The subject of geotourist perceived with the same respect that had been granted to the Continental Alps interest might be also: the life, work, publications, notes, artwork, personal and before them (Andrews, 1987). BPictures^ that is painting the landscape as seen museum collections, commemorations, etc., which are related to famous Earth was facilitated for tourists by a special device, the so-called Claude glass, scientists or some honored geo-passionate persons (see (Hose, 2011)). These which allowed for the composition of scenic views as reflected in an oval cultural artifacts are included in so called Bsecondary geosites.^ The idea of mirror. For these first tourists, the source of their delight was not only nature primary and secondary geosites is clearly explained in numerous works by itself but a self-constructed, stylized image of it (Byerly, 1996). Hose (see for instance (Hose, 2016b), p. 6). Geoheritage processes, and recognized and often referred to directly as a here cited after (Różycka & Migoń, 2017)). In his later works, Bgeosite.^ In the second (not necessarily mutually exclusive) Hose (Hose, 2016b) proposes a more complex typology. He conceptual approach, geotourism is defined more by the mo- divides geotourists according to intellectual engagement, so- tivation (and the type and strength of motivation) for travel cial involvement, and physical activity. On these criteria, sev- rather than simply the geological or geomorphological nature eral categories are distinguished: active disengaged, casual of the destination. This category covers the travel of tourists inactive, and dedicated group. which is undertaken to get to know geoheritage and to acquire, Taking into account the possible differences of visitors’ expand, or even specialize in knowledge about it. The nature motivations, the strength and agency of the cognitive motive, of motivation usually determines the specificity of the desti- and the tourists’ preparation for self-interpretation of a geosite, nation; so, many geotourism authors combine the two concep- the picturesque in the geotourist landscape contains a differ- tual categories into a single definition (see the review of def- ent meaning each time. For Bpurposeful^ and highly qualified initions in Newsome and Dowling (Dowling & Newsome, Bdedicated^ geotourists (Bgeoexperts^), the landscape per se 2010), p. 3 and (Migoń, 2012a), pp. 12–14). Among the most and its picturesque qualities (e.g., beauty, mystery, grandeur, frequently cited motivations for travel are the desire not only and visual composition) are not of great importance; it is at to know, understand, and gather knowledge but also to admire most an added bonus to visiting a valuable or unique geosite. geosites and their monumental, dramatic, or simply beautiful However, it can be assumed that this feature may facilitate the landscapes. Hence according to Joyce (Joyce, 2006): BPeople selection between two sites of equal geotourist value. The aregoingtoaplace to look at and learn about one or more picturesqueness of the site is of greater importance in the case aspects of geology and geomorphology.^ The same opinion in of two further groups of tourists visiting geosites: dedicated terms of the motivations of mostly general tourists who visit people, but without substantial preparation to be able to inter- geosites is shared by Migoń (Migoń, 2010;Migoń, 2012b): pret the geoheritage and people who select the geotourist des- BThe beauty of many geomorphological landscapes has long tination as one among many, not necessarily the most impor- been recognized, starting from travelogues of ancient travelers tant tourist attraction visited during a trip. In the first case, the and scientists. Today, many such landscapes, if easily acces- presence of the picturesque, the monumental, and a vast, pan- sible, are top tourist destinations, accommodating millions of oramic view facilitates the interpretation of the geosite, con- visitors annually. They come to see a scenery, which in their firms the power of nature, and determines its place in the eyes have outstanding universal value^ (2010, p. 11). At the human world (and humans in the world of nature itself); in same time, Bprofessionals^ (those who possess professional the second case, it provides meaning and often determines the geoscience training or those familiar with the terminology of wider satisfaction with the trip. For a tourist exhausted by Earth sciences ) can visit geosites alongside hobbyists, people the difficulty of reaching geosites, especially where there ex- who love cognitive tourism, but do not have specialist aware- ists an undefined internal/intrinsic motivation, a beautiful, sur- ness, and even completely casual visitors, those who end up at prising view becomes a kind of satisfaction. Any travel which geosites Bwithout meaning to^ often without any substantive is crowned with a Bwow!^ is the quintessential tourist preparation ((Migoń, 2012a), p. 15). A similar distinction is experience. made by a number of other authors; for example, Hose (Hose, The picturesque aspect of the geotourist landscape is also 2000;Hose, 2007) differentiates between Bdedicated gaining importance in the light of research conducted on the geotourists^ and Bcasual geotourists^;Božić and Tomić motivation of tourists participating in geotourism. Although (Božić & Tomić, 2015) and use the terms Bpure geotourists^ the studies were all conducted individually and focused on and Bgeneral geotourists,^ defined on the basis of the strength certain geosites, they shed some light on the nature of the and importance of their motivation for geotourism; and Grant (Grant, 2010) places geotourists on a scale between two ex- I understand the term Bgeotourist landscape^ as a landscape which consists tremes, from those with no preparation at all (the so-called of places labeled as geosites or a landscape, which clearly illustrates natural or Bunaware visitors^) to those with a high degree of technical anthropogenic phenomena valuable in terms of understanding the history of Earth (e.g., geomorphologic landscapes) or the geographical foundations of knowledge and interest in geoengineering geology (all authors human activities. These landscapes might have both natural or cultural characters. 5 9 However, Schwarz and Migoń (Schwarz & Migoń, 2017) strongly claim The scale of the landscape with a wide panorama often features large-scale there and subsequently that BGeotourism is much more than just looking at processes, whose interpretation is not possible at a microscale. Landscape as a landscapes.^ useful tool of interpretation is of great significance especially in geomorphol- These two categories of Breal^ geotourists make geotourism at least part of ogy. This determines, according to Migoń and Pijet-Migoń (Migoń & Pijet- Migoń, 2017), the necessity for the distinction and clear and unequivocal so-called special-interest tourism (see (Hall & Weiler, 1992)). description of a new category geosites, so called viewpoint geosites. This characterization resembles popular typologies of cultural tourists, also most often grouped on the basis of the type, power, and agency of cultural This then creates positive feelings, a reaction to other geosites (or geoheritage in general), which may in turn become the motivation for further, motivation and the nature of activities undertaken during travel (see (McKercher, 2002; McKercher & Du Cros, 2003;Nahrstedt, 2000; more purposeful geotourism. Silberberg, 1995;Stebbins, 1996)). This by definition includes all those visiting a geosite. Geoheritage needs of modern geotourists. Allan (Allan, 2011), having an- this way, geotourism can be thought of as something con- alyzed surveys conducted at Crystal Cave at Yanchep ceived: it is not the tourist that creates it, but it is the geotourism National Park in Western Australia (also (Allan et al., itself that creates a geotourist (if not all geotourists, at least the 2015)), the Pinnacles Desert in Western Australia, and Wadi majority of them, mostly non-dedicated, casual). Rum in Jordan, indicates that the most common motives for The Binterpretation,^ treated as kind of entry to the success- visitors engaging in geotourism are as follows: an escape ful geosite management for the tourism market, might be un- from the routine of daily living, leisure, fun, sense of wonder, derstood as usage of specific informative tools, which are and cognitive goals. The author does not specify whether the appropriate for the particular audience for which they are cognitive motivations indicated by respondents are general in intended and which are scientifically correct as well. nature, or whether they are strictly geared to gaining knowl- However, this is a very simplified approach to the problem edge of Earth sciences. Similar observations can be seen in of geosite interpretation. According to Hose (Hose, 2005a) King’swork ((King, 2010), p. 115) concerning tourists visit- Bgeotourism has marked societal value, for geology contextu- ing the most famous volcanic attractions of Hawaii. Their alizes issues of self and place within the cosmos, together with iconic scenery attracts a rather specific group of geotourists: pressing present day issues such as global climate change and honeymooners who buy helicopter or plane trips to enjoy a finite resources management.^ Interpretation is described as romantic bird’s-eye view of the volcanoes or engaged couples Bthe art of explaining the meaning and significance of sites who choose to marry in the fairy-tale volcanic caves. Among visited by the public^ ((Badman, 1994), p. 429, quoted in the tourists who visited the Hwanseon Cave in Samcheok (Hose, 2011)). The term Bart^ underlines the complexity of City, South Korea, Kim et al. (Kim et al., 2008)identify four the task. The interpretation encompasses not only on-site in- key categories which differ from each other according to their terpretative provision but also off-site provision. The main travel motivations: (1) escape-seeking group (seeking to es- objective for interpretation is assisting visitors to appreciate cape from their daily routine or lifestyle; (2) knowledge and site significance, aiding in the site management, and promot- novelty seeking group; (3) novelty seeking group; and (4) ing understanding of the site agency’s policies. It should not socialization group. Similarly, the main motivations for be limited to short-term knowledge acquisition ((Hose, geotourists visiting Hong Kong Global Geopark in China 2005b), p. 224, (Hose, 2012)). The problem of effective (or are the following: novelty seeking, social interaction, enjoy- Bproper^) interpretation is widely discussed in a large body of ment, or escape (Cheung, 2016). Geopark visits can also go literature. For example, Hughes and Ballantyne (Hughes & beyond typical cognitive motivations and be part of a more or Ballantyne, 2010) put forward a detailed framework to make less traditional nature-based leisure: Benjoyment^ is also cited interpretation successful: to set out and consequently realize by Cheung’s (Cheung, 2016) study, as are picnicking and an interpretative plan, define a target audience and uniqueness hiking. The cited research demonstrates that the motivations of a place, and recognize external and internal conditions for for the general, non-dedicated geotourist generally coincide the interpretation. As the interpretation means Btelling a sto- with dominant tourist motives identified for other types of ry,^ it is equally important to culturally contextualize a site, to tourism. This means that geosites need to compete with other use analogues, metaphor, and humor, to encourage visitors to offerings for the tourist market. At first glance, this suggests actively participate, and finally to evoke emotions, not only an that their picturesqueness can become their most readily visi- understanding. This quite technical instruction of interpreta- ble pull factor for general tourists. tion of geosites might be developed using the concept of In attempting to define geotourism, some authors express Bdiscovering a sense of wonder^ (Gordon, 2012). It lets us the concept in isolation from the primary motivations of tour- go beyond the traditional didactic approach to interpretation ists, focusing on the tasks that this form of tourism is supposed and provides opportunities for developing more creative ways to fulfill relative to geoheritage and ultimately on the tourists for people to engage with and appreciate geodiversity through themselves, the beneficiaries of geotourism (issues such as different cultural experiences. Searching for connections be- geoconservation and geoeducation). In other words, regardless tween natural landscapes and culture might offer the same of what motivates the visitor to travel to the geosite, by inter- satisfying experiences for casual geotourists as collecting esting interpretation, the tour operator or geosite manager is rocks, measuring particular geomorphological features or able to create a genuine Bgeotourist^ by the end of the visit. In looking at geological structures for dedicated geotourists. Evoking the words of Ham (Ham, 2007), Gordon (Gordon, 2012) sees interpretation as an intellectual provocation, not an Among them: casual geotourists (non-dedicated) and dedicated (pure) instruction; he proposes a more holistic view on geoheritage geotourists. As research on motivations revealed (e.g., (Allan, 2011; Allan et al., 2015;Cheung, 2016; Kim et al., 2008; King, 2010)), the first group of all interpretation that includes links to cultural heritage. people visiting geosites is the majority of geotourists. Returning to the problems with defining geotourism, it is Where search for novelty can be understood not only as a search for new or noticeable that geotourism reflects the intentions (e.g., of the different experiences to standard everyday life but also simply the desire to visit a newly opened tourist attraction. managers of geoheritage and those in academic circles Geoheritage interested in its dissemination) and is not (for the most part) a who commercialize geosites), the authors of the cited definition response to them (for example, the general public). This situ- do not directly use the term Bview^ in reference to geoheritage ation is reminiscent of the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. nor do they valorize it in esthetic categories (such as Bbeautiful,^ Is geotourism a response to the demand for geotourism prod- Bscenic,^ Bdramatic,^ or Bmonumental^) as visual impressions ucts, or is it the manufacturer and supplier of geotourism and the accompanying emotions inherent in geotourism. products who creates or initiates and maintains the demand? In sum, geotourism is therefore a type of tourism which Or maybe it is a combination of both? Hose (Hose, 2012)lists exists at the interface of cultural tourism (due to cognitive- the main keywords of contemporary geotourism as: (1) cultural motives and the cultural character of parts of geoconservation, (2) geohistory , and (3) geointerpretation. geosites), leisure tourism, adventure tourism, and ecotourism, All of these terms might be simultaneously understood as the whereas both by itself and within these forms, it occurs as so- benefits from geotourism for tourists, geoheritage in general, called sustainable tourism (see (Słomka & Kicińska- and all institutions and persons involved. Schwarz and Migoń Świderska, 2004), cited after Newsome and Dowling (Schwarz & Migoń, 2017), citing Millán Escriche (Millán (Dowling & Newsome, 2010), p. 3; (Kowalczyk, 2010; Escriche, 2011), explain that Bthe major difference between Osadczuk & Osadczuk, 2008), cited after (Migoń, 2012a), p. geotourism and other forms of tourism is precisely its educa- 13; (Dowling & Newsome, 2005), p. 6). The esthetic values tional function: to teach, to instruct and to explain clearly the linked not only to the physiognomy of particular geosites but repertoire of georesources in different sites.^ While this state- also to the wider landscape appear in many valorizations of ment might be debatable (there are plenty of forms of tourism, the attractiveness or usefulness of geosites for tourism (see especially cultural tourism, which play a mostly educational, (Knapik et al., 2009;Różycka & Migoń, 2017)). cognitive role), from a practical point of view (considering the wide educational tools and practices used in geotourism), it appears to be true. The Iconic Role of Geotourist Landscapes The second conceptual approach described above finds a particular justification in the context of the research on the Contemporary tourism, like culture, is a phenomenon that is primary motivations of visitors to geosites, although they tend largely based on visual experience. BFor the tourist of the to have a case-study-like character as they reveal the small twentieth century, the world is one big supermarket composed percentage of tourists who have visited geotourist attractions of landscapes and cities^ (Schivelbusch, 1986). BEsthetic con- deliberately and with full awareness of the site’s educational sumerism is the absorption of the world in images that usurp value in expanding our understanding of Earth’s history and of the position of reality^ ((Frydryczak, 2013), p. 163). The im- the processes shaping its surface. portance of Bseeing^ and Bgazing at^ in tourism and tourism’s Relating back to the importance of the picturesque in associations with photography—a fixed view that replaced the geotourism, Newsome and Dowling ((Dowling & traditional painting and the drawing—appears in the work of Newsome, 2010), p. 4), referring to the work of authors such many authors (e.g., (Sontag, 2009)), but above all in that of as Hose (Hose, 1995;Hose, 2000; Hose, 2008), Joyce (Joyce, Urry (Urry, 2007). Urry (Urry, 1995)sees in tourism aspecial 2006), and others, suggest an understanding of geotourism as kind of Bconsumption of places^ from the purely mechanical follows: to the metaphorical and visual. Tourism produces and process- B(…) a form of natural area tourism that focuses on geolo- es Bsights^ for its own use; moreover, it generates a visual gy and landscape. It promotes tourism to geosites and the representation of a place, a region, or a country through conservation of geo-diversity and an understanding of earth Bviews.^ One particular sight or characteristic of the landscape sciences through appreciation and learning. This is achieved of a given place becomes the embodiment of its Bgenius loci,^ in independent visits to geological features, use of geo-trails which is a metaphorical figure. On their travels, tourists liter- and viewpoints, guided tours, geo-activities and patronage of ally collect visual representations of places—in the past it geosite visitors centers.^ might have been postcards—Bviews^ from the places they In addition to the undoubtedly cognitive motivation of the visit. Tourists choose these natural or constructed visual rep- tourist, this approach emphasizes the usefulness of the Bview^ to resentations partly due to laziness, partly because they have to satisfy this motivation, of genuine exposure, and through the select a destination among the unbelievable number of tourist articulation of cognitive values of the geosite. While in attractions available and these provided constructs are simply geotourism, cognitive qualities and motivations are undoubtedly useful in that MacCannell (MacCannell, 2005) claims that of first-order importance (at least from the point of view of tour tourist sites are Bsigns^ that Bsomething that gives something operators, suppliers of a particular tourism product and those to someone^; so, it may be a prelude to a closer acquaintance, akin to an intellectual journey. The picturesque of sights entails their mechanical and cul- Means here Ba systematic narrative of geological and geomorphological discoveries, events, personalities, and institutions^ (Hose, 2012). tural reproduction: they appear in the private photos of Geoheritage tourists, on postcards, in tourist catalogs, on websites, posted to photo sharing portals (such as Instagram), and are used in popular and social media, used by both the news and enter- tainment media and via entertainment providers (acting as locations for films). Intentionally or not, a view (an eye- catching frame) plays often a role of a tourist marker, employed in tourist destination management. According to the classical tourist attraction theory (MacCannell, 2005), a view constitutes a component equally important to create a tourist attraction as tourists who visit a sight and attractive attributes of a sight which attract people. Even more, as Terlouw (Terlouw, 2014) writes, landscapes are important el- ements of spatial identities and continues citing Daniels Fig. 1 The Bowder Stone today—from behind on the left, the famous (Daniels, 1993): Bas exemplars of moral order and aesthetic ladder (2013), photo by author harmony, particular landscapes achieve the status of national icons.^ Thus, not only iconic landscapes define a space but also they are also the basis for human (individual and collec- traveler, who visited the Ashbourne copper mines in 1698, is tive) spatial identity. considered to be the first recorded geotourist in England The iconic role of landscapes might result from their natu- (Hose, 2016b). ral beauty, sublimity, extensiveness, complexity, or mystery. A The growing interest in geology in the eighteenth and nine- special meaning is given to places and landscapes of outstand- teenth centuries, being part of the broader fascination of nat- ing or critical events, bloody struggles, or associated with ural history of selected regions, encouraged people to discover national heroes, personifying collective gains and dreams. and explain Bwide^ landscapes and later describe them in pop- Not only all kinds of visual arts but also more traditional ular (such diaries, early geo-guidebooks) or scientific litera- cultural products, such as poetry and prose, help to sustain ture (see (Hose, 2010), pp. 16–24). The development of Earth their presence in the collective (national, regional, or local) sciences advanced equally with the progress of humanities. memory. The most influential esthetic movement, Romanticism, The picturesque of geotourist landscapes allows them to changed peoples’ attitude to nature. The character of contem- fulfill the above iconic, symbolic functions. It is also in many porary tourism and the tastes and motivations of early trav- cases the beginning of tourism in general, followed by elers were also shaped by the deep changes in societies, cul- geotourism in selected places and regions (e.g., the Peak ture, and economy of the industrial époque. Growing in size District or the Scottish Highlands, see: (Gordon & Baker, and power, the eighteenth and nineteenth century middle class 2016;Hose, 2008)). The picturesque was first portrayed in started to evince aspirations and imitate travel patterns typical literature and painting and then later in photography or film. (and available by then) for the aristocracy (Hose, 2012). This path is illustrated clearly in the history of geotourism in Partly, some participants of the Grand Tour travels might be the English Lake District. The first tourists (especially artists named as early geotourists as in the modern meaning of and poets sensitive to beauty, esthetics, and values) visited this geotourism. As Hose (Hose, 2016b) writes, the Grand Tour region in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries mainly be- tourists not only visited those European cities considered ma- cause of the landscapes, many of which were not only wild, jor centers of culture (e.g., Rome, Paris, and Venice) but also ancient, and mysterious but also beautiful and romantic (Hose, place with prominent geological and geomorphological phe- 2010;Hose, 2016a; Hose, 2016b). The first geosite to be nomena: (e.g., Mount Vesuvius, Etna, the Rhone Valley, and named literally and used commercially in the Lake District the Alps). Landscape appreciation was initially a minor, even is the Bowder Stone (Fig. 1) (Hose, 2016a; Hose, 2016b). ignored, element of the Tour, but it grew in significance over The Victorian painter John Atkinson Grimshaw immortalized time. Generally, the beginning of geotourism might be attrib- this boulder in a picturesque setting in one of his paintings (the uted to the Romantic époque (although some of its indications Bowder Stone, oil on canvas, circa 1863–1868). Celia had occurred earlier), not only in Great Britain but also in Fiennes, a privileged late seventieth-century horse-back other regions of Europe and the world as well, and it was strongly connected with academics’ and artists’ communities. Eugene von Guérard, the Austrian born landscape painter, For more on this issue, see Robertson and Richards (Robertson & Richards, 2003), pp. 121–140. traveled, painted, described, and finally popularized the vol- The modern open landscape in which the boulder is located has lost some of canic regions and gold fields of the Australian New World its beauty (looking at it from a distance), as its most important accent—the (Pullin, 2016). Johann Wolfgang Goethe due to his travel to Bowder Stone—is today overshadowed by trees. Nevertheless, the Bowder Stone itself creates a picturesque landscape. the Sudetes, among them the Stołowe Mountains, had a Geoheritage passionate interest in geology and was the first known Romanticism, some of its indications were evidenced in his- geotourist in this area (Migoń, 2016). Writers like Michael J. tory much more earlier. For instance, Ancker and Jungerius Quin, Andrew Archibald Paton, and Siegfried Kapper shared (van den Ancker & Jungerius, 2016) write about numerous the same enthusiasm for loess landscapes observed during and frequent visits of people near Haarlem at the Dutch sea- travels along the Danube river (North Serbia) (Vasiljević et side in the early seventeenth century to admire the coastal al., 2016). landscape with dunes. These travels linking landscape appre- In subsequent eighteenth and nineteenth century post- ciation with recreation were immortalized in the paintings by, travel publications, which could be used as tourist guidebooks for example, Esaias van der Velde. (see (Hose, 2010; Hose, 2016a;Hose, 2016b)), the vivid de- What attracts today’s tourists is also in many cases, the scriptions of the sights complemented ever more detailed in- recognizability of the sight and subsequently its cognitive formation about the geology and the geological past and of the qualities. MacCannell (MacCannell, 2005) even cited criti- areas visited. Numerous stories from journeys describing cisms of modern tourists as Bthey convert perception into or- visits to places nowadays recognized as geoheritage locations dinary recognition.^ The recognition of the sight can be de- did not put forward only facts—they contained lots of cultural fined not only as a simple knowledge of it through its physical associations, reflections, or even straight references to Bthe occurrence in everyday human experience but also more picturesque^ term. The best example of this is the work by broadly as a reference to broader associations with many other Gilpin (Gilpin, 1782) Observations on the River Wye, and cultural phenomena (e.g., events, figures, literature, image, several parts of South Wales, …. The author described the film, and anecdote). The picturesque of the sight and of the landscapes according to their context, composition, harmony, photograph (or other visual tool such as poster, film, and video beauty, color, texture, and ephemeral visual effects, not only clip) that uses it is responsible for creating and sustaining the subjects of tourist gazing themselves. Thomas West pro- popular impressions about the place. The classic examples moted the Lake District’s principal locations, sights, and so of this phenomenon are the Grand Canyon of Colorado, called stations (places to admire scenic views) in his A Guide Uluru in Australia, the majestic buttes of Monument to the Lakes…, published (West, 1778)and thepicturesque Valley in Utah/Arizona, Wadi Rum in Jordan, the White esthetics as well (Hose, 2016b). Picturesque-focused tourist Cliffs of Dover (Fig. 2), and the Chinese mountains of gaze was reflected and simultaneously initialized, by famous Huangshan. The scenery of the granite rocks of the literature (e.g., by John Keats, William Wordsworth, Samuel Huangshan massif within dwarf pine forests is one of the Taylor Coleridge, Robert Southey, and Emily Brönte in the oldest and most popular motifs of Chinese landscape painting. UK) and similarly in other regions of Europe (e.g., in Poland, The White Cliffs of Dover are the Bgateway^ to Great Britain, Wincenty Pol, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, and Leopold the symbolic and physical boundary of a specific category, Staff all devoted their works to the Tatra Mountains). that of the quintessence of Bislandness,^ the sign of endurance Picturesque descriptions of geomorphological and geological and resistance to the external world. Famous, majestic buttes phenomena of specific regions found in fictional novels and and monoliths have become a visual representation of the poems might be used as geotourist guidebooks, even now, American Wild West or the Australian Outback and of their many years after their creation. Some works by the Polish values and traditional lifestyles. They have been used in many writer, Stefan Żeromski, played a similar role, especially his films, westerns, and road movies, where they were often not essay entitled Puszcza jodłowa (The firry backwoods), pub- just a backdrop for the plot, but Bthe character^ of the story lished in (Żeromski, 1925). It documents the ancient land- itself. A similar role is played by geotourist landscapes on a scape of the Holy Cross Mountains (Polish BGóry somewhat smaller scale, described later in the article in the Świętokrzyskie,^ central-southern Poland), covered by block example of selected coastal landscapes. fields, and the author’s emotional attitude towards it. The re- lations between the literary work of Stefan Żeromski and local The Cliffs of Rügen geology of the Holy Cross Mountains are broadly analyzed by Ożóg (Ożóg, 1988). The picturesque/painterliness of the landscape of the Romantic gaze at nature and its geographical phenomena, Cretaceous coast of the German island of Rügen was focused on the selected Bviews^ and their cultural contexts, Roesch (Roesch, 2009) and others have written about this: a significant has not passed away with the Romantics—it is still present in percentage of tourists choose to travel to places they see in movies or through many current cultural trends (such as Photo-realism, Neo- images that are commonly found in pop culture. Visiting places seen in films is Romanticism, and Ruralism in Great Britain, see (Hose, not only for film tourism but also for other forms of movie-induced tourism. The landscape of rocky spires and towers of Monument Valley was popu- 2012)) and contemporary tourism as well (e.g., film-induced larized in the western films directed by John Ford. tourism). The urban settings of Paris, London, or Barcelona served a similar function Although landscape/scenic tourism based significantly on in Woody Allen’s films: BVicky Cristina Barcelona^ (2008), BMidnight in geotouristically attractive places is linked mainly with Paris^ (2011), and BLovers in Rome^ (2012). Geoheritage Fig. 2 The Cliffs of Dover, the Bgateway^ to Great Britain (2003), photo by author developed and popularized in the eighteenth century by Caspar David Friedrich. The BChalk Cliffs on Rügen^/ BKrefeldfelsen auf Rügen,^ created in 1818 (Fig. 3), presents a picturesque clearing in a chalk cliff, today located in the Fig. 3 BKreidefelsen auf Rügen^ (1818), Caspar David Friedrich. Oil on Jasmund National Park. The picture is one of the most popular canvas. Source: Museum Oskar Reinhart, Inv. No. 165 and classic examples of romantic landscape painting. The is- land of Rügen with its natural (Cretaceous cliffs, Herthasee Pleistocene glacial epoch (tills and meltwater sands) lie on top lake, and original beech forests) and cultural (megaliths, Cape of the Permian-Mesozoic rocks. Visible on the walls of the Arkona with the Bburgh,^ and the cultural center of the Rani cliffs are traces of flint, some of which has been washed onto tribe) landscapes has been a mysterious land since the early the pebble beaches below (Borówka & Kwaśny, 2011). nineteenth century, representing Btrue^ Germanic values, Jasmund National Park offers tourists many geotourist attrac- which could appeal to the newly constituted nation. tions and strives to ensure that they are properly interpreted, According to Schieb (Schieb, 2002), the young poet Ludwig providing not only physical and visual infrastructure (e.g., Theobul Kosegarten established this myth in his poem BOde hiking trails, bridges, footbridges, climbing stairs to the foot to the Stubbenkammer,^ for whom this monumental chalk of the cliffs, and viewing platforms) but also richly illustrated formation became a kind of Baltar^ of the cult of the homeland. information boards, directing tourists’ attention to the geolog- Friedrich’s image of the natural Bwindow^ and its associ- ical structures, landforms, and dominant geomorphological ated views from the upper part of the cliffs of the north coast of processes. Rügen, the combination of greenery and scrublands, and the steel-gray waters of the Baltic Sea and the chalk-white walls has become a widely reproduced image in culture and tourism. The Rauks of Gotland and Fårö The sight was also painted by Philipp Hackert, Carl Gustav Carus, Friedrich Schinkel, Carl Blechen, and Friedrich Preller The fantastical shapes of the limestone rauks and klints of Senior (Schieb, 2002). The scenery can still be admired from Gotland and Fårö create geotourist landscapes, which un- many viewpoints on the Rügen cliffs, the most popular being doubtedly constitute a great tourist attraction for these Baltic Königstuhl/Stubbenkammer, and Victoria Sicht. Referring to islands. The rauks visible on the beaches (e.g., Langhammars MacCannell’s classic theory ((MacCannell, 2005), pp. 68– on Fårö, Fig. 5) are Silurian reefs (Tuuling et al., 2011), which 71), in which tourism can lead to Bsight sacralization^— form the so-called Silurian klint. The recognizability of the whereby an object converts into a tourist attraction, it can be characteristics of this Baltic landscape is due to its beauty, said that the Rügen Cliffs are already at the mechanical (or which has benefited many creators of visual arts, painting, even social) stage of reproduction inasmuch as they have be- and film. The Fårö rauks were featured in the films of come a foundation of territorial identity. Ingmar Bergman, among others, in BThrough a Glass The geotourist attractiveness of the rugged cliffs of Rügen Darkly^ (1961), BPersona^ (1966), BShame^ (1968), and derives from the legibility and relative ease of interpretation of BPassion^ (1969). The rough, angular clusters of limestone the natural landscape. The high, steep coasts of the island are pillars in Fårö have been portrayed as presenting a metaphor made from a thick layer of chalk (Fig. 4), where erosion and for the difficult emotional states and life-forms of his protag- mass movements (i.e., landslides) are active. In the geological onists. Gotland and Fårö also abound in a number of valuable structure of northern Rügen, Quaternary deposits related to the and unique cultural attractions, such as the medieval Geoheritage The Trotternish Escarpment, Isle of Skye The basaltic pinnacles of the Trotternish Escarpment north of Portree, alongside the majestic Red Hills and glaciated moun- tains of the Black Cuillin, create the most geotouristically attractive and recognizable tourist destination in the natural landscape of the Isle of Skye (Figs. 6 and 7), which is the largest island of the Inner Hebrides in Scotland (Gillen, 2013). The road which runs along the coast towards the Old Man of Storr abounds in lay-bys that allow cars to pull over and tourists to stroll and admire the majestic, ancient land- scape. Especially long perspectives of gazing create favorable condition to appreciate the picturesque of the rough, dramatic scenery. Moreover, it is the best opportunity to notice the large scale of a specific geomorphological process and its results, Fig. 4 View of the Rügen Cretaceous rocks from the Königstuhl lookout point (2015), photo by author characteristic for this location. The Quiraing, Table, Needle, Prison, Dun Dubh, and the Old Man of Storr (the local names fortifications and ruins of Visby churches, prehistoric ceme- for particular topographic features produced by landslides) form the great edge of the Trotternish Ridge and document teries and boat tombs, and the traditional agricultural and pas- toral landscape. These attractions and the limestone rauks the biggest large-scale mass movements on the island (see (Ballantyne, 2007; Ballantyne, 2008; Ballantyne, 2016)). dominate the tourist perception of the islands. This image, East of the escarpment is the most extensive area of which is an iconographic representation of the Btypical^ landslipped terrain in Britain as a whole, occupying c. Gotland landscape, is promoted by the popular series of Bcof- 40 km . It is divided into two sections: an outer zone of sub- fee table books^: books and albums based mainly on photo- graphs and drawings of the most valuable and most scenic dued, ice-molded landslide blocks that were over-ridden by the last ice sheet and an inner zone of tabular landslide blocks local views (see (Edquist, 2005), p. 53). These books are pri- marily intended for the tourist market and can be purchased as and pinnacles (Fig. 7) that represent rock-slope failure since deglaciation (which in this area occurred about 17,000 years travel souvenirs in tourist information centers, or simply be viewed in places such as hotels, guest houses, and inns, where ago) ((Ballantyne, 2008), p. 20 and Fig. 10 therein). Palaeogene basalt lavas, now forming the high and sharp they are normally laid out in prominent places. escarpment, were erupted onto Jurassic shales and clay-rich sedimentary rocks, which are much weaker than the basalt. Some parts of the basaltic escarpment are detached from the main body of lava and have slipped on the softer sedimentary rocks beneath, forming the most distinctive landscape features (mostly the Bcosmic-shaped^ rocky pinnacles) near the east coast of Skye (Fig. 7)(Gillen, 2013). The whole process of landslipping occurred due to the nature of the underlying geology. In all likelihood, it was started even in the Tertiary ((Yoxon & Yoxon, 2005), p. 21) due to the formation of tec- tonic fractures (faulting) acting as slip surfaces, but it contin- ued into the Holocene well after the last ice sheet melted. The iconic role of the Trotternish landscape results strongly from its visual attributes, but also from history, tradition, myths (see: (Swire et al., 2006), and (Gordon, 2016)) and nowadays also from modern visual arts. The majestic basalt rock cliffs of the Trotternish Peninsula have been popularized More on geology and landscape of Skye in, e.g., Emeleus and Bell (Emeleus & Bell, 2005) and Gordon (Gordon, 2010). Ballantyne (Ballantyne, 2008; Ballantyne, 2016) additionally notes that although failure of the scarp has traditionally been attributed to rotational Fig. 5 One of the rauks on Langhammars on Fårö being photographed by sliding within the sedimentary rocks, the configuration of detached blocks tourists (2010), photo by author suggests planar sliding or gliding of lavas over deforming shale. Geoheritage Scottish mountains and islands ((Monaghan, 2004), p. 65). The significance of the scenic beauty and sublime character of the Trotternish landscape is evidenced by the wide body of guide- book literature, which defines visually the island through the dramatic views of basaltic pinnacles of the escarpment and the spectacular valleys and peaks of the Cuillin Hills. Moreover, Trotternish is also now listed by the Scottish Geodiversity Forum as one of the BBest Places to see Scotland’sGeology^ (see: http://www.scottishgeology.com/best-places/. Accessed 9 April 2018). The project promotes Scotland’s geodiversity and encourages people (non-specialists) to explore, learn more about, and enjoy Scotland’s geoheritage. Conclusions Fig. 6 View of the Trotternish Ridge on Skye, with the Old Man of Storr on the right, partly covered by clouds (2013), photo by author The review of popular definitions of geotourism leads to the in the science-fiction film BPrometheus^ (2012), directed by conclusion that geotourism is a phenomenon of visiting geosites in which more emphasis is put on the final effect of Ridley Scott, which is part of the prequel to Bthe Alien series.^ It appears in the film as the surface of a distant planet where the acquiring knowledge about geodiversity by tourists than on protagonist of the story encounters a deadly form of life. The linking geotravel with initial geotourist (usually cognitive) mo- tivations of tourists. Furthermore, the final knowledge acquired famous Old Man of Storr rock formation (Fig. 6) also appears in the opening scene of the 1973 film BThe Wickerman.^ The through interpretation (regarded as looking for and highlight- ing the connections between natural phenomena and culture, basalt escarpment of the Quiraing has appeared in the films BThe Land That Time Forgot^ (1975), BStardust^ (2007), traditions, history, humanities, memories, and art) goes far be- yond simple geological or geomorphological facts. BSnow White and the Huntsman^ (2012), BMacbeth^ (2015), B47Ronin^ (2013), and BThe BFG^ (2016) (https://www. The role of the picturesque in geotourism is of great impor- tance. As a complex category, equally visual and symbolic, it visitscotland.com/blog/films/skye-film-locations/, accessed 07.04.2017). This geotourist landscape is therefore strongly is deeply and instrumentally linked with the beginnings of rooted in the popular culture of today. The Trotternish Ridge early geotourism. Hose (Hose, 2016b) concludes this briefly: has cultural, symbolic, and even somewhat religious Bthe past really is the key to the present.^ Numerous references significance, analogous to the Stubenkammer on Rügen. In to the picturesque esthetics and appreciation of nature’s beauty have been occurring in geo-travel stories through time, inde- the distant past, a bloody ritual was practiced here, what was called at the time a Bbull sleep^ used for gaining knowledge of pendently of whether their authors were ordinary people, geo- passionates, artists, or scientists. This suggests that curiosity the future, as reported by eighteenth-century travelers to the and looking for extraordinary esthetic experiences occur in geotourism equally frequently as in cultural tourism. Referring to the core questions of the paper, to what extent the picturesque might be a decisive pull factor to attract people to geosites, it has to be underlined that there is a difference in its relevance in relation to casual/non-dedicated geotourists and pure/dedicated geotourists. Whereas the picturesque of geotourist landscapes, their cultural contexts and finally their recognizability might be the prime factors (each one itself or their combination) inducing non-dedicated geotourists to trav- el, for dedicated geotourists they play rather little role as an initial motivation. However, the sense of the significance of the picturesque within the latter group of geotourists might grow during the course of a visit due to interpretation which presents specific objects of nature and the particular sciences focused on them as phenomena deeply rooted (not isolated or being alongside) in culture (by simple presence in past and Fig. 7 Basaltic pinnacles of the Trotternish Ridge on the Isle of Skye and their Bcosmic^ landscape (2013), photo by author present human experiences or by use for different purposes as Geoheritage Bedell R (2001) The anatomy of the nature: the geology and American well). The picturesqueness and recognizability of sights are landscape painting. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 1825– not, of course, a substitute for cognitive values in geotourism but can be significant initial factors for attracting a much wider Borówka B, Kwaśny M (2011) Walory przyrody nieożywionej range of casual geotourists to iconic geosites and landscapes. niektórych wysp zachodniej części Morza Bałtyckiego. Prz Geol 59(6):463–480 (in Polish) They are important in terms of perceiving values, apprecia- Božić S, Tomić N (2015) Canyons and gorges as potential geotourism tion, and broader popularization of geoheritage and building destinations in Serbia: comparative analysis from two perspec- the attitude of common acceptance for geoconservation issues tives—general geotourists’ and pure geotourists’.Open as well. Appreciation is here substantial (especially for non- Geoscience 7:531–546 Burek CV, Prosser CD (2008) The history of geoconservation. 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Geoheritage – Springer Journals
Published: May 29, 2018
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