The Arabidopsis A1-type cyclin, CYCA1;2, also named TARDY ASYNCHRONOUS MEIOSIS (TAM), is known for its positive role in meiotic cell cycle progression, but its function in other cells has not been characterized. This paper reports the role of CYCA1;2/TAM in differentiated cells in vegetative organs. The pattern of CYCA1;2/TAM expression was investigated by promoter and protein fusions using the β-glucuronidase and the green fluorescent protein, respectively. The relevance of the promoter region used in these gene fusion constructs was verified by the effective complementation of the phenotype of the diploid null allele, tam-2 2C by a genomic fragment containing the wild-type coding region of CYCA1;2/TAM and the promoter region. CYCA1;2/TAM expression was found primarily in non-proliferating cells such as guard cells, trichomes, and mesophyll cells, and in vascular tissue. In two types of overexpression lines, one containing the CYCA1;2/TAM transgene driven by the ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1 (ASK1) promoter and the other CYCA1;2/TAM–GFP driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, the largest differences between the transgene transcript levels were approximately 72- and 45-folds, respectively, but the TAM–GFP signal levels in the mesophyll and stomata in the 35S:TAM–GFP lines only differ slightly. Furthermore, the GFP signals in the mesophyll and stomata in the TAM:TAM–GFP and 35S:TAM–GFP lines were all at similarly low levels. These results indicate that the CYCA1;2/TAM protein is likely maintained at low levels in these cells through post-transcriptional regulation. Loss of function in CYCA1;2/TAM resulted in increases in the nuclear size in both trichomes and guard cells. Surprisingly, overexpression of CYCA1;2/TAM led to similar increases. The large increases in trichome nuclear size likely reflected ploidy increases while the moderate increases in guard cell nuclear size did not justify for a ploidy increase. These nuclear size increases were not clearly correlated with trichome branch number increases and guard cell size increases, respectively. These results suggest that cellular homeostasis of the CYCA1;2/TAM protein is linked to the control of nuclear sizes in trichomes and guard cells.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 16, 2014
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