1021-4437/02/4905- $27.00 © 2002
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2002, pp. 671–676. Translated from Fiziologiya Rastenii, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2002, pp. 751–757.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2002 by Dunaeva, Kozyreva.
The method of plant-cell, tissue, and organ culture is
used to meet the current needs of both fundamental
biology and breeding, among the latter, such as produc-
ing haploids, somaclones, and transgenic plants. The
capacity of a genotype under breeding to vigorously
produce the regenerated plants in the
a crucial factor for breeding applications of cell tech-
Selecting the speciﬁc conditions can promote the
rate of morphogenetic processes in cell cultures .
However, plant genotype is also an important factor of
regenerated plant formation (for review see ).
RC in an
culture is a complex integral trait,
yet it is inherited [2–4]. High heritability, dominance
effects, and segregation by the RC trait in F
crosses suggest that there are genotypes where the vari-
ation in RC is determined by a few genes. Such geno-
types could be used as high RC donors.
controlled by one or two major
genes was reported in alfalfa , cucumber , tomato
, wheat , and maize .
In barley, several genes, or gene complexes, for high
RC have been identiﬁed, including
(shoot regeneration), a dominantly
inherited monogene , and a series of
shoot regeneration) genes:
loci were mapped to the long arm
of the chromosome 2 [13, 15], whereas the
was mapped near to the centromere on the short arm of
chromosome 3, and the
locus, on the long arm of
the chromosome 7 .
Genetic markers of regeneration would facilitate the
search and selection of high RC genotypes. Evidence of
such markers is extremely rare.
The linkage was reported between the high RC gene
and the two-row-spike gene
and the genes for
In addition, the high RC gene
associated with the genes
(“usu” dwarﬁsm) and/or
(non-brittle rachis), whereas
was linked to
(smooth awn) . Marker genes
(short awn) or linked genes on the
chromosome 4 were shown to affect morphogenesis in
the callus culture . We are not aware of any pub-
lished evidence relating the tillering capacity
the regeneration rate
The current research is focused on DNA markers of
the genes determining high
markers of the genes for high somatic embryogenesis
capacity [12, 17], shoot regeneration [12, 13, 18], and
androgenesis [19–21] have been identiﬁed in maize
[12, 19–21], alfalfa , tomato , and barley .
The Relationship between the Traits of the Two-Row Spike,
the High Number of Thillers, and the High Regeneration
Culture in Barley
S. E. Dunaeva and O.G. Kozyreva
Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
Bol’shaya Morskaya ul. 42, St. Petersburg, 190000 Russia;
fax: 7 (812) 311-8762; e-mail: dunaeva@OA5153.spb.edu
Received March 13, 2001
—In barley (
L.), the traits of the two-row spike, the high rate of plant tillering, and
the high capacity for multiple plant regeneration (MPR) in a callus culture of immature embryos were shown
to correlate. When a dihaploid line (DH) obtained from cv. Golden Promise (two-row spike, high number of
thillers) was crossed to a DH line from cv. Bruce (six-row spike, low number of thillers), the two-row trait dom-
inated the F
generation, whereas, in F
, the segregation ratio was 3 : 1. From F
progeny, we isolated the fam-
ilies comprising two-row homo- and heterozygotes and six-row homozygotes. In an F
hybrid population, the
two-row plants manifested higher tillering and MPR rates as compared to the six-row plants. The correlation
between the traits of the two-row spike, the high tillering, and the high MPR capacity may depend on the pleio-
gene, which controls the general mechanisms of meristem functioning essential for the development
of these three traits.
Key words: Hordeum vulgare - embryos - plant regeneration in vitro - two-row spike - tillering
: DH—double haploids (dihaploids); MPR—multi-
ple plant regeneration; RC—regeneration capacity; TT—total
number of thillers.