P1: GVM/GOQ P2: GDP/GCR/GMF/GIR QC: FZN
Sex Roles [sers] pp436-sers-369965 March 7, 2002 17:55 Style ﬁle version Nov. 19th, 1999
Sex Roles, Vol. 45, Nos. 9/10, November 2001 (
The Relationship Between Masculinity,
Femininity, and Criminal Thinking in Male
and Female Offenders
Glenn D. Walters
Federal Correctional Institution-Schuylkill, Pennsylvania
The 4 factor scales of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles
(PICTS) were correlated with the Femininity and Masculinity scales of the
Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) in 100 adult male (33% Caucasian, 44%
African American, 21% Hispanic, 1% other) and 100 adult female (50%
Caucasian, 30% African American, 8% Hispanic, 12% other) federal prison
inmates. It was hypothesized that the BSRI Masculinity scale would corre-
late negatively with the PICTS problem avoidance scale and positively with
the PICTS self-deception/assertion scale, and that the BSRI Femininity scale
would correlate negatively with the PICTS interpersonal hostility scale and
positively with PICTS denial of harm scale. In male inmates, as predicted, the
BSRI masculinity scale correlated negatively with the PICTS problem avoid-
ance scale and positively with the self-deception/assertion scale, although the
latter coefﬁcient fell short of statistical signiﬁcance. In the case of female in-
mates the BSRI femininity scale correlated positively with denial of harm but
failed to correlate signiﬁcantly with interpersonal hostility. The implications
of these results are discussed.
KEY WORDS: PICTS; BSRI; masculinity; femininity; criminal thinking.
It has been proposed that males often engage in externalizing behaviors
like delinquency and substance abuse because of masculine attitudes and
interests, whereas females, by virtue of stronger communal ties, tend to in-
ternalize problems. Accordingly, females typically experience higher levels
of psychological distress. Although this supposition is not without empirical
To whom correspondence should be addressed at Psychology Services, FCI-Schuylkill, P. O.
Box 700, Minersville, Pennsylvania 17954-0700.
2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation