1063-0740/03/2902- $25.00 © 2003
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2003, pp. 110–114.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2003 by Biologiya Morya, Kashenko.
(Müller et Troschel) are mass, wide-spread
echinoderm species of the Sea of Japan. They are found
in various benthic biocenoses of the littoral and sublit-
toral zones. Their distribution, biology, behavior, repro-
duction cycles, and development have been studied rel-
atively well [1, 4–6, 8–10, 12–14, 18, 19, 27,
Many studies of
have focused mainly on
its feeding habits as a predatory species. This starﬁsh
causes serious damage to the Japanese aquaculture
farms [25, 26, 29–31].
were carried into
the Australian coastal waters with the ballast water of
sea vessels, where they settled out and became one of
the major destroyers of the Australian aquaculture
products [23, 28, 32]. An omnivorous species,
is capable of feeding on mollusks and echinoids
[4, 10, 27]. The temperature conditions of the
habitats were studied, and the
temperature range allowing the species’ reproduction
was determined [17, 19, 33]. At the same time, the
desalination effects on
adults and larvae, which have a long-term plankton
stage, have been poorly studied. The adults of both spe-
cies living in Vostok Bay at normal salinity are exposed
to desalination effects in the time of monsoon rains in
the nearshore zone of the bay , as well as in its
innermost part, where an oyster bank is situated and
where the stars migrate periodically in the warm sea-
The aim of this work was to determine the salinity
adaptation range of
adults and to study the peculiarities of the species’ reac-
tions to desalination of their habitats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was performed at the “Vostok” Marine
Biological Station of the Institute of Marine Biology
(Vostok Bay, Sea of Japan) July 1998–2000.
specimens with an arm length of 7 to
15 cm were collected at a depth of 4–6 m, water tem-
perature of 20.2
C, and salinity of 32.5‰. In all, 297
adult starﬁsh were used in the experiments.
adults 8 to 10 cm in size were collected at a depth
of 0.8–1.5 m, water temperature of 20.5
C, and salinity
of 32.3‰ on their migration from the deeper parts of
the bay. In all, some 378 specimens of this species were
All experiments were initiated 2–3 h after the col-
lection of animals. The desalination tolerance of the
starﬁsh was determined from the time of their reverting
to the normal position after their being turned to the
dorsal side (righting) and from the number of fully
active starﬁsh (100%) 1 h after their placement into the
water of a different salinity. The salinities tested ranged
from 6 to 32‰ at 2‰ intervals . The time of righting
was recorded at the control (28–32‰) and lower salin-
ity values at which all animals remained active. A star-
The Reaction of the Starfish
(Asteroidea) from Vostok Bay
(Sea of Japan) to a Salinity Decrease
S. D. Kashenko
Institute of Marine Biology FEB RAS, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received May 31, 2002
—The reactions of the starﬁsh
that live in Vostok Bay at
the salinity of 32–33‰ to a salinity decrease were studied under laboratory conditions. The lower limits of the
desalination tolerance range of
were, respectively, 24 and 20‰.
proved to be less resistant to desalination. Under experimental conditions, all specimens of this species survived
the salinity of 22‰, while those of
tolerated 18‰. At the same time,
to unfavorable changes in the environment. Turned to their dorsal side and exposed
to a salinity of 16 to 32‰, the former reverted to the normal position within a shorter time than the latter. Being
a more euryhaline species,
endured a salinity decrease to 6 or 8‰ over, respectively, 21 or 28 h.
However, only 30–40% of all specimens could recover locomotory activity 12 or 8.5 h after being placed into
water of normal salinity.
, salinity, adaptation.