THE POSSIBILITY OF USING A THERMOELECTRIC INSTRUMENT PT-102
FOR EVALUATING THE STABILITY OF TECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTION
OF HEAT-RESISTANT CARBON FIBER MATERIALS
I. B. Moskovenko,
A. A. Sviridov,
V. T. Gyrdymov,
and E. Z. Kovarskaya
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11 pp. 53 – 55, November 2009.
Original article submitted May 4, 2009.
Results are provided for tests under OOO Argon conditions of thermoelectric instrument PT-102, that is
checked successfully in performing measurements both under laboratory and technical monitoring section
conditions, and also during the production of carbon fiber materials.
Keywords: carbon fiber materials (CFM), thermoelectromotive force (thermo-emf), non-destructive monitor
ing, electrophysical properties, physicomechanical properties.
Carbon fibers, cloths, and tapes find practical application
in the development and manufacture of promising ultra-high
temperature composite materials based on a carbon matrix.
These carbon-carbon materials have high heat and thermal
shock resistance in the high and ultra-high temperature re-
gion. Introduction into a carbon matrix of high-strength and
high-modulus carbon filler, i.e. carbon-fiber materials
(CFM), is accompanied by an increase in strength and stiff-
ness of a composite, including at ultra-high temperature.
This feature is important for providing reliability of engi
neering systems with increased stresses and under conditions
of a considerable temperature gradient. In addition, structural
materials based on a carbon matrix, containing high-strength
carbon fiber fillers, have a high level of viability, i.e. a capac
ity to retain parameters governing the operating reliability of
an object, including development in an object material of
cracks and other defects. Mechanical properties of CFM of
various sorts cover a wide range of values in normal elastic
ity modulus (200 – 700 GPa) and ultimate tensile strength
(2000 – 4000 MPa). CFM based on PAN (polyacrylonitrile)
depending on strength and elasticity modulus, are subdivided
into high-strength and high-modulus. High-strength CFM
have an elasticity modulus of 200 – 300 GPa; the elasticity
modulus for high-modulus CFM with a lower strength may
exceed 400 GPa. Depending on the carbon content carbon fi
bers are divided into three groups: carbonized (>90% C),
carbon (91 – 98% C), and graphite (98% C) .
Analysis of carbonization and graphitizing of oxidized
PAN-fiber makes it possible to formulate the main require-
ments that should be considered in developing technology
for these processes, and correspondingly the principles that
should be laid down in creating equipment for implementing
1. Fiber heating should be performed in a protective at
2. The rate of temperature increase should provide the
possibility of implementing not only the main thermochem
ical transformations in the fiber, but also subsidiary pro
cesses, in particular removal of the volatile products formed.
3. There should be a possibility of controlling fiber de
formation in the various stages in accordance with the pro
cesses that occur.
4. It should be possible to separate high-temperature
processing into stages with conditions for providing more ef
fective occurrence of them.
5. Removal of the volatile products liberated should be
organized in order to exclude the possibility of their unfavor
able action on the treated material.
It should be noted that not all, but only the main, require
ments are listed that will be further supplemented.
Numerous forms of CFM, produced currently, require
strict observation of production parameters for their manu
facture. Within these conditions a particular role is played
both by methods for monitoring the finished product, and
also non-destructive monitoring methods for the stability of
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 6, 2009
1083-4877/09/5006-0449 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Proc. International Conference of Refractory Workers and Metal
lurgists (Moscow 23 – 24 April, 2009).
OOO Zvuk, St Petersburg, Russia.
OOO Argon, Balakovo, Saratov Region, Russia.