REFRACTORIES IN HEAT UNITS
THE OXIDE-CARBON PLATES FOR SLIDE GATES
A. E. Zhukovskaya,
I. I. Kozelkova,
and T. V. Andreeva
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 7, pp. 13 – 16, July, 2003.
The effect of calcination conditions, mixture composition, and binders used on performance characteristics of
corundum and periclase-carbon plates for slide gates has been considered. Technologies have been developed
and pilot batches of refractory plates fabricated for use under industrial conditions. Technical documentation
for production of oxide-carbon plates has been drawn up. Industrial tests of the plates have been conducted
and the possibility of their repeated use demonstrated.
At present, intensification of production and reduction of
the cost continue to be challenging problems in metallurgy as
well as in other branches of industry in Russia.
It is worth noting that more than 90% of the cast product
from foreign manufacturers and about 50% from domestic
manufacturers in Russia is produced by the use of slide-gate
casting technology. In this connection, it was thought of in-
terest to return once again to an issue of the multiple use of a
single complete set of slide-gate plates. With domestic manu-
facturers, a single set of slid-gate plates is used on a
“one-off” basis, whereas with foreign manufacturers, a single
set (depending on the casting conditions) can be used to ser
vice as many as eight heats. There are two reasons for that
the domestic manufacturers have failed to keep pace with
progress in the field: (i) most metallurgical works in Russia
are equipped with slid gates of obsolete design for which no
maintenance control of the plates was provided by service
regulations; (ii) no plates capable of sustaining a multiple
casting regime have been available commercially from the
With foreign manufacturers, these problems were nicely
resolved by the use of “book”-type slide gates in which, by
the original design, the gate in service could be opened for
inspection of the plates in a period between heats; this makes
it possible to decide on the serviceability of conventional
plates as well as on their replacement with oxide-carbon
(preferably, corundum-oxide) plates.
The slide-gate plates are a structural component of the
gate and, along with the traditional refractory properties
(thermal stability, high-temperature strength, resistance to
molten metal and slag), they must display other properties in-
herent in structural materials: consistency of shape and size,
ability to sustain mechanical treatment without detriment to
the surface integrity. Structure of the plate material is like-
wise an important factor: many-years experience in the de-
sign and service of plates has shown that development of a
specified finely-porous structure offers a greater advantage
than drastic reduction of the total porosity. It is precisely the
reduction of the total number of pores larger than 5 mm
across that has provided a route toward inhibiting the infiltra
tion of metal and slag and thus a longer service life of the re
fractory. Introduction of carbon into the material has served
the same purpose.
There are two ways toward reducing the pore size: (i) im
pregnating the sintered components with carbon-containing
materials which, when carbonized, fill the pores with carbon,
and (ii) creating a finely-porous structure directly during the
sintering via directional formation of phases. Foreign manu
facturers make use of both methods.
The structure of corundum-carbon plates is formed, as a
rule, by reaction sintering. Periclase-carbon plates are manu
factured by impregnating (sometimes more than once) a
hard-burned oxide matrix with various carbon-containing
compounds (resins). In certain cases, calcined corundum-car
bon plates are also subjected to impregnation.
In Russia until now, no carbon-containing plates have
been commercially available from domestic manufacturers.
However, work is currently under way aimed at developing
domestic technologies for manufacture of nonexpendable
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 44, No. 5, 2003
1083-4877/03/4405-0281$25.00 © 2003 Plenum Publishing Corporation
St. Petersburg Institute for Refractory Materials Joint-Stock Co.,
St. Petersburg, Russia.