The involvement of present-day diploid bluegrass species in the formation of polyploid genomes was investigated using comparison of sequences of internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2, and the 5.8S rRNA sequence. It was demonstrated that highly polyploid New Zealand bluegrasses, P. cita (2n = 84; ca. 96 to 100), P. chathamica (2n = 112), and P. litorosa (2n 263–266) formed separate highly supported clade together with tetraploids (2n = 28) P. intrusa, P. anceps, and P. triodioides (Austrofestuca littoralis). Among the diploid species (2n = 14), the closest relatives of these species, as well as of the polyploid species of section Poa, are the genomes of Eurasian species P. remota, P. chaixii (sect. Homalopoa), P. densa (sect. Bolbophorum), and P. sibirica (sect. Macropoa). Nuclear genomes of polyploid Stenopoa, Tichopoa, Oreinos, and Secundae are definitely related to the genome of Arctic species P. pseudoabbreviata (sect. Abbreviatae). On the contrary, judging by the genes for nuclear 45S rRNA, genomes of diploid P. trivialis (sect. Pandemos), P. annua, and P. supina (sect. Ochlopoa both) are only remotely related to the genomes of highly polyploid species (p-distances between them and other bluegrass species from different sections of subgenus Poa constitute 6–10% and 11–15%, respectively). The conclusion on the relationships between highly polyploid and diploid bluegrass species was tested using analysis of synapomorphic mutations in the 5.8S rRNA gene. It was demonstrated that genomes of Poa eminens (2n = 42) and P. schischkinii (2n = 70) (sect. Arctopoa both) were noticeably different in ITS regions from the genomes of the members of the type subgenus Poa. A comparison of the Arctopoa ITS regions showed that the differences between them constituted only 0.2%. At the same time, p-distances between the Arctopoa ITS and those from the species belonging to other sections of the genus Poa varied from 5 to 14%. South American species P. chonotica (sect. Andinae) (= Nicoraepoa chonotica) (2n = 42) was found to be related to Arctagrostis, Festucella, and Hookerochloa, being at the same time quite distant from the other species of the genus Poa. Polymorphic in chromosome number highly polyploid species of Northern Hemisphere, P. arctica (2n = 42 to 106), P. turneri (2n = 42, 63 to 64), and P. smirnowii (2n = 42, 70) (sect. Malacanthae) are relative to a large group of tetraploid (2n = 28) endemic bluegrass species from New Zealand and sub-Antarctic islands (P. novaezelandiae and allied species).
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 16, 2010
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