Subsurface vortices are frequently created when a falling drop strikes a flat water surface. Prior work has demonstrated that the shape of the drop at the point of impact is critical in determining how deep or how fast the resulting vortex will penetrate into the water bulk. In the present study, the details of this phenomena are explored by using surfactants to vary surface tension. Specifically, Triton X-100 monolayers are created on the surface of the drop, and on the flat water surface. The results of these experiments suggest that there is no single optimal drop shape resulting in best vortex penetration. Rather, the data suggest that the optimal shape depends on the surface tension of the falling drop. An attempt is made to reconcile contradictory results in the literature using this result.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 18, 2004
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