ISSN 10630740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2016, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 102–105. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © N.K. Kolotukhina, V.A. Kulikova, 2016, published in Biologiya Morya.
Only one bivalve species of the Anomiidae family,
(Deshayes, 1839), inhabits
the northwest of the Sea of Japan. It is a widespread
Pacific boreal species, which belongs to the most
primitive living genus,
lives off the coast of the South Primorye at Hokkaido
Isl. and the northern part of Honshu Isl., off the south
ern and eastern Sakhalin in the Kuril Islands, and in
the east of Kamchatka in the Commander and Aleu
tian Islands [4, 13]. It was also revealed in the Chukchi
Sea off Alaska , which is considered by the authors
as probable evidence of climate warming that pro
motes the penetration of the larvae to the north, as well
as their success in settling and growing to maturity.
occurred from the lower intertidal
zone to a depth of 150 m. Despite the abundance and
wide distribution of this species, information on its
reproduction and development, including its larval
morphology, is not sufficient. The pelagic larval and
juvenile forms of other species of Anomiidae have been
described in the literature [6, 9–13, 16–20]; however
no such information is available on
The objective of the present work is to describe the
shell morphology of
at the veliconcha
and early juvenile stages.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Pelagic larvae and juveniles of
that were sampled in the Vostok Bay (Peter the
Great Bay, Sea of Japan) in July–September of 2002–
2006 were used as material for the study. The plankton
was sampled in the water column from the bottom to
the surface with net with a 96
m mesh size of the filter
cone. The earliest settled individuals of
from 300 to 600
m in size, were sampled from
artificial substrates in September 2004.
The material was fixed in 96% ethanol after prelim
inary morphometric analysis of the larvae. The shell
morphology was studied using light and electron
microscopy. For electron microscopy, the shell valves
were cleaned of the soft tissue, followed by immersion
of the larvae into a 5–10% solution of sodium
hypochlorite . The shell valves were then rinsed in
distilled water and embedded into a glycerol medium
for examination under an Ergaval light microscope.
For a detailed study of the hinge system and shell
sculpture, a Leo 430 scanning electron microscope
(Carl Zeiss) was used.
In the description of the larval and early juvenile
shell, the method of building a prospective and retro
spective series of its morphogenesis was used. A com
parative analysis of the structure of the shell in the lar
and other species of the Anomi
idae family that inhabit different areas of the World
Ocean, as well as in the larvae of other families similar in
their morphology, was carried out. The conventional
terms were used in the description of the shell morphol
ogy of the pelagic larvae and juvenile forms .
RESULS AND DISCUSSION
The shell of the pelagic larva at the veliconcha stage
was dark brown, its surface had concentric striations
(growth lines). The anterior shell shoulder is drawn
BIOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL
The Morphology of the Larval and Juvenile Shell of
(Deshayes, 1839) (Bivalvia: Anomiidae)
N. K. Kolotukhina and V. A. Kulikova
Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Pal’chevskogo 17, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
email: Kolotukhina. firstname.lastname@example.org
Received June 4, 2015
—For the first time the data on the morphology of the larval and early juvenile shell of
(Deshayes, 1839), which is the only species of the Anomiidae family that inhabits the Peter the
Great Bay, is given. The basic attribution characters of larval shell of this species at the veliconcha stage are
the absence of the eye, the dark color of the shell, a shell height : length ratio that is nearly one, and the pres
ence of four to five denticles at each side of the provinculum. A description of the early juvenile shell is given.
The results of the study can be used to identify larvae in the plankton and early settled juveniles.
veliconcha, provinculum, metamorphosis, juvenile shell