The integrated feasibility analysis of water reuse management in the petroleum exploration performances of unconventional shale reservoirs

The integrated feasibility analysis of water reuse management in the petroleum exploration... Regarding the dramatic increase of water additional resource administration in numerous drilling industries’ operational performances and oil/gas extractions, water supply plays a significant role in their performances as efficient as optimum operations, in respect of the way, this utilization is often invisible to the public eye. The necessity of water in a wide variety of drilling operation due to its vast applicant in several functions is widely reported in the literature that has been required to remain these procedures plateau. The objective of this comprehensive study is to conduct an investigation into the studied field and analyze the assessment of necessary water and produced water which is provided in the surface for reinjection procedures in the hydraulic fracturing and water injectivity; in respect of the way, petroleum and drilling industries will push themselves into limits to find suitable water sources from a local source to encapsulate their economic prosperities and virtually eliminate extra expenditures. In comparison to other industries and consumers, oil and gas development is not a significant water consumer, and its water demands can exert profound impacts on local water resources, and this is why it imposes particular challenges among water users in a vast majority of fields and areas in times of drought. Moreover, water has become an increasingly scarce and costly commodity over the past decades, and operators are being beneficially noted that awareness of recycling and reusing phenomenon that has treated effluent is both costs competent and socially responsible. Consequently, energy, environmental situation, and economic prosperity considerations should be analytically and preferably investigated to cover every eventuality and each possibility of disposal and water reuse options. Keywords Drilling industries · Water reuse · Economic prosperity · Water treatment · Reuse options Introduction inexpensive in those regions where there is abundant local access to rivers or lakes, and local regulations permit with- The volume of total freshwater consumption by individuals drawal, in respect of the way, petroleum operators are trying in the earth is only 2.5%, because most of it (97.5%) which is to achieve to cheap water which is dwindling and compa- too salty for human use, that is to say, that just less than 1% nies have to search further to access rig water (Kondash and of this fresh water is available for direct human consump- Vengosh 2015; Nicot and Scanlon 2012; Nicot et al. 2014; tion. Due to continual population growth, agricultural and Scanlon et al. 2014a, b). Water reuse offers an enormous industrial developments, and climate change effects, water chance for operators to access to independent sources of resource scarcity has become a critical issue in many parts water which it is dependable on some occasions. Further- of the world (Arnell and Lloyd-Hughes 2014; Fischer et al. more, it would be locally controlled and play a significant 2017; Freyman 2014; Gallegos et al. 2015; Pedro-Monzo- role in the environmentally friendly use. The proportional- nís et al. 2015). The cost of rig water could be relatively ity of water resource distribution in each category is dem- onstrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. As can be seen in Fig. 1, the volume of fresh water is 1/32 of saline water in the earth, * Afshin Davarpanah and this amount would be drastically decreased shortly due Afshin.Davarpanah@srbiau.ac.ir to the vast consumption of fresh water by individuals and 1 numerous industries (Davarpanah et al. 2018). Department of Petroleum Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 75 Page 2 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 fracturing is a controlled operation that pumps fluid and a EARTH'S WATER DISTRIBUTION propping agent through the wellbore to the target geological [CATEGORY formation at high pressure in multiple intervals or stages, to NAME] [PERCENTAGE] create fractures in the formation and facilitate production of hydrocarbons. Hydraulic fracturing is a safe and proven way to develop natural gas and oil; it has been used through- Fresh Water out the oil and gas industry for about 60 years. Therefore, 3% water usages and the water reuse in petroleum industries have become one of the significant concerns in petroleum exploration and production industries as an energy issue. Water exercise plays a dominant influence in the life cycle of petroleum industries as below: Fig. 1 Percentage of earth’s water sources • considered as the cooling equipment in mud circulation which helps to cool the drill bit and carries rock cutting FRESH WATER DISTRIBUTION out of the borehole; Icecaps and Glaciers Ground Water Other Surface Water hydraulic fracturing; • enhanced oil recovery techniques; 29% water flooding; 1% • steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) (Clark and Veil 2009; Holt et al. 2009). 3% Two of the main challenges of petroleum industries are 2% providing the sufficient amount and appropriate quality of 68% water and find novel solutions to properly manage the waste- water generation. Wastewater composition in most of the cases is being categorized as follows: Fig. 2 Percentage of freshwater sources high dissolved organic matter, including volatile com- pounds and hydrocarbons; Surface Water Distrib on high salt content (often > 35 g/L); • metals (e.g., iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium, 2% 11% barium, etc.); • dissolved gases (e.g., H2S); naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM); 87% • high concentrations of suspended solids, oil, and grease(Chen and Carter 2016; Davarpanah and Nassa- beh 2017a, b; Dubiel et al. 2012; Engle et al. 2014; Esser et al. 2015). RiverSwampsLakes Waste management Fig. 3 Percentage of surface freshwater sources There are four methodologies and techniques of waste management which are addressed to improve the quality of The distribution of freshwater and surface fresh water is produced or injected water during drilling operations that have entailed reduce, recycle, reuse, and recover. Reduce depicted in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. Each year, the total volume of produced wastewater by is the generation of less waste through more efficient practices such as process modification, use of non-toxic petroleum industries are exceeded more than 800 billion gal- lons. These wastewater productions contain the large vol- additives, inventory control, and management. Recycle/ reuse is to convert waste back into a product such as burn- umes generated wastewater over the life of the well and mas- sive volumes of water which is urgently needed in hydraulic ing waste oil for energy, oily wastes for road construction and stabilization, recycling drilling muds, and recycling fracturing performances (Davarpanah and Nassabeh 2017a, b; Scanlon et  al. 2013a, b; 2014a, b; 2015). Hydraulic scrap metals. Recover is extracting materials or energy 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 3 of 12 75 from waste such as recovery of oil from tank bottoms and plenty of off-the-shelf treatments, and unlimited supply of sludges (Glassman et al. 2011). These four parameters are applications. These steps are being illustrated graphically followed by waste treatment and disposal. The treatment in the PFD diagram in Fig. 4. utilizes techniques to minimize the amount and toxicity of waste to minimize the amount that has to be disposed of. Treatment challenges For waste disposal, environmentally sound and approved methods should be used. Regarding local geology, there Oil and gas wastewater treatment is considered as one of the are million tons of in situ water which are produced by leading pollution possibilities owing to including a broad production operations on the surficial wellbore equip - variety mixture of salt and suspended solids in high con- ment and significant amount of these waters are separated centrations, metals such as arsenic and barium, organics like by powerful equipment; however, these obtained water hydrocarbon compounds, and potentially naturally occurring sources may contain chemical pollutants, heavy metals, radioactive material. It is of paramount importance to clarify oily particles, etc., which have potentially devastating the hazardous risks of this toxicity appropriately and control effects on the environmental processes and they will not their mobilization, and study their occurrence dispersion, be capable for human treatments due to their toxic and det- their settlement time in the environment and their corrosive rimental effects. One of the primary reasons of this issue effects on the food chain. Some “light-treatment” techniques is that operators may add many chemicals to this fluid to are widely administered in petroleum industries which most make the process more productive. Another underlying of these treatment methodologies have determined when assumption which is to be elaborated about this phenome- wastewater treating is entirely variable, and its appropriate non would be natural salty water that is trapped in the rock application is prohibitively expensive to construct, oper- matrixes. Thereby, a large volume of this water is trans- ate, and maintain. Thereby, a few acceptance standards due ferred to the surface. The possibility of assessing the dire to how to identify what is in each waste stream and which consequences of fossil and hydrocarbon fuel development adequate methods to clean this are being presented. One of on the water life cycle are being investigated and widely the main steps in the rapid acceleration of water reuse is the reviewed by numerous scientists and engineers to optimize advent of advanced membrane treatment methodologies, and the maximum water reuse in operations; these extensive their cost reductions are classified into four categories; studies include water management practices; recycling, treatment, disposal of wastewater, and the impacts on the membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF). watershed and surrounding environment. Reuse and recy- ultrafiltration (UF). cling processes are practiced by petroleum companies; in nanofiltration (NF). such areas, there are restriction rules for disposal wells and reverse osmosis (RO) (Orem et al. 2014). freshwater is more expensive and harder to find (Kharaka et al. 1988). Using MF or UF in municipal wastewater reuse, espe- Lots of water sources in petroleum industries include cially for RO pretreatment, started to multiply in the late produced water, refinery wastewater, marketing termi- 1990s. Nowadays, the integrated utilization of MF and UF nal water, ground water, storm water, parking lot runoff, with RO has widely available and has reached a standard Fig. 4 Typical water treatment PFD (Kharaka et al. 1988) 1 3 75 Page 4 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 in municipal advanced recycled water projects, especially fracturing are required (Rabbani et al. 2018; Rowan et al. for indirect potable water reuse cases where the recycled 2015; Thacker et al. 2015). water is re-injected to the groundwater aquifer to augment the existing water sources. Historically, petrochemical plants and refineries have used RO as pretreatment for ion exchange Produced water reuse and recycling in some demineralizers to produce pure water for boiler feed and of the oilfields process uses. Since 1999, more than ten UF systems have been installed as pretreatment for RO in petrol facilities Produced water in two of the Barnett shale reservoirs which for boiler feed-water demineralization. RO, in the form of are located in the northern portion of Pennsylvania is being VSEP (vibratory shear enhancing processing), has also been studied, and their comparison between them is clarified as used in the full scale for removing selenium from stripped below to continue to minimize the amount of freshwater sour water to help a large refinery meet stringent discharge utilization in drilling and production operations; in respect requirements. In addition, there are other types of prepar- of the way, it lessened the extra expenditures of freshwater ing techniques for separating solids and other particles from supplements (Mantell 2011): water which are necessary to reuse it again in drilling and operational performances. These techniques are dilution, fil- Shale field-1 water reuse tration, and centrifugation, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), support-assisted liquid–liquid extraction (Al Dabaj et al. In this field, produced water has generally had higher 2018), solid-phase extraction (Oetjen et al. 2017, 2018), levels of TDS, low amounts of TSS, and moderate scaling and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME). Dilution serves tendency; that is to say, that, in this field, the volume of the purpose of two significant principles: lessen the sample water reused and treated by membrane treatment techniques viscosity which plays a vital role on the analysis of water is relatively 8% of the total amount of water which is used injections and flow backs; in respect of the way, viscosity for drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations. However, reduction causes the enhancement of re-productivity. Fur- water reuse treatments play a significant role in production thermore, dilution procedures altered the matrixes of the and drilling operations; logistical and economical perfor- sample and prompted to have more compatibility with fur- mances impose specific restrictions in the administration of ther analyzing. Filtration and centrifugation are other kinds large volume of water reuse in this field (Jin et al. 2017; of separation for virtually eliminating the particulate com- Mantell 2011). ponents to deal more compatibility with the analytical meth- odologies. Moreover, filtration processes would not have the Shale field-2 water reuse ability of dissolved fractional component alteration (Ferrer and Thurman 2015; Mitra 2004; Oetjen et al. 2017, 2018; In this field, produced water has generally had lower Rodriguez-Aller et al. 2016; Thurman et al. 2017). levels of TDS, moderate amounts of TSS, and low scaling tendency; that is to say, that, in this field, the volume of water reused and treated by membrane treatment techniques Production from unconventional shale oil and gas is relatively 8% of the total amount of water which is used plays for drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations with water reuse production with a target goal of 23% reuse in the play. Accumulations of hydrocarbons such as oil and gas in nat- Regarding low levels of TSS, it does not urgently need of ural conventional and unconventional reservoirs through- specific filtration before reuse operation. In comparison to out the world which most of them were migrated from the previous category, logistical and economical perfor- clean fine-grained, dark-gray, or black organic-rich sedi- mances impose particular restrictions in the administration mentary source rocks were referred to organic-rich shales. of large volume of water reuse in this field (Horner et al. Over the past decades, organic-rich shale formations have 2016; Mantell 2011). been considered as the source rocks in petroleum reser- Total dissolved solids (TDS) are being used for the fol- voirs, that is to say, that, hydrocarbons originated and lowing purposes: migrated into sandstone and limestone of various reser- voir qualities, because unconventional reservoirs have low It is used as a measurement of inorganic salts, organic permeability than other reservoirs and have less economic matter, and other dissolved materials in water. volumes of oil and gas produced in oilfields. To produce It is used as a secondary drinking water contaminant. commercial quantities from the unconventional reser- It can cause some operational problems for drinking voirs, a combination of increased oil and gas prices and water systems. improved technology of horizontal drilling and multi-stage 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 5 of 12 75 It can cause toxicity to aquatic life through increases in nearest well information was 80 km away. Geologist fore- salinity, changes in the ionic composition of the water, cast from this well required drilling through reactive shales and the toxicity of individual ions. in the member. It produces a smaller volume of produced Significant sources of TDS are being found in: water initially (compared to the other significant plays) and steel industry; has inferior quality produced water. It has had higher lev- pharmaceutical manufacturing; els of TDS and high amounts of TSS, and produced water mining operations; has high scaling tendency. In this field, low produced water oil and gas extraction; volumes, poor produced water quality, and the resulting eco- some power plants; nomics have prevented successful reuse of produced water. landfills; However, due to the large volumes of higher quality drill- food processing facilities (Wilson and VanBriesen 2012). ing wastewater generated during the drilling process, it is actively exploring options to reuse this wastewater in sub- Although there are numerous studies and research activi- sequent drilling and fracturing operations. ties which are widely reported in the literature to emphasize the importance of flow-back waters, in this comprehensive study, the author is tried to investigate the water treatment Well performance of shale reservoirs and how to provide sufficient water utili- zation for each well by the optimization of each procedure. The studied field entails seven production wells which three Furthermore, by serving the purpose of water reuse in drill- of them are located in the gas shale layer (well-05–07), and ing and exploration industries, the administration of fresh other wells are drilled horizontally on the oil shale layers. water is virtually reduced and subsequently will help to the The reason for drilling the wells in the horizontal form water scarcity in the world. is that high potentiality of wells for hydraulic fracturing regarding the high connectivity of the fractures and cracks has successfully operated. The production performance for Methodology and application of produced each well is schematically demonstrated in Figs. 5, 6, and 7 water reuse to espouse the importance of productivity rate for each well. As it is evident from Fig. 5, well-04 has the maximum Studied field oil production rate rather than other wells and well-05–07 due to its original properties (gas shale reservoirs) does not The vertical wells to be drilled were exploration wells in the produce any oil during the production operation. Moreover, southwest Iran’s oilfield which is called South-Aban oilfield as it is shown clearly in Fig. 6, water production has a similar that could provide information on potential reservoirs and decline pattern as oil production; in respect of the way, the lithological data of the field. This oilfield unit distributed volume of water production has decreased gradually. into the Asmari, Pabdeh, Gorpey, Ilam, and Sarvak forma- As it is clarified in Fig.  7, due to the more production tions which are located in the Cheshmeh-Khosh operational of gas volume in the gas shale wells, this amount of gas field. No offset data were available on the well, and the has increased dramatically in the first stages of production. Fig. 5 Oil production rate for Oil Producon Decline for each well each well 0 200 400600 800 10001200 1400 1600 1800 Time (Days) Oil Producon(Well-01) Oil Producon(Well-02) Oil Producon(Well-03) Oil Producon(Well-04) Oil Producon(Well-05) Oil Producon(Well-06) Oil Producon(Well-07) 1 3 Oil Producon (STB/Day) 75 Page 6 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Fig. 6 Water production rate for Water Produc on Decline for each well each well 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Time (Days) Water Produc on(Well-01) Water Produc on(Well-02) Water Produc on(Well-03) Water Produc on(Well-04) Water Produc on(Well-05) Water Produc on(Well-06) Water Produc on(Well-07) Fig. 7 Gas production rate for Gas Produc on Decline for each well each well 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Time (Days) Gas Produc on(Well-01) Gas Produc on(Well-02) Gas Produc on(Well-03) Gas Produc on(Well-04) Gas Produc on(Well-05) Gas Produc on(Well-06) Gas Produc on(Well-07) Since then, this volume has reached approximately a plateau in gas cap are being statistically explained in the ordinary in the next steps. format in Table 1. As it is clarified in Table  1, porosity var- Furthermore, regarding the constant water production ies approximately between 5.48 and 9.13 in this field; in of the wells in shale reservoirs, it is a common reason for respect of the way, it changes a little in some parts of the unconventional reservoirs than conventional reservoirs that e fi ld. Moreover, the range of permeability which is obtained has a gradual rise in the water production. Therefore, the by production logging tools is relatively 8.03–12.37 for oil water cut fraction for each well is being depicted in Fig. 8. shale reservoirs and 3.89–5.34 for gas shale reservoirs. In As can be seen in Fig.  8, bypassing the production time, this field, oil saturation is assumed an average constant the fraction of water cut in all the wells has an approximate amount (approximately 0.42) and water saturation is aver- constant value and those wells that are drilled in the oil shale agely about 0.254. layers are more than wells which are drilled in gas shale lay- ers. This phenomenon might be related to the miscibility of Utilization of water in the development of shale oil and water which enables the water phase to mobilize to reservoir of the field the surface with oil in the solution phase. Water is considered as the fundamentally vital components Reservoir and rock properties in the construction of shale reservoirs. Some of the utiliza- tion of water in drilling and exploration industries are: the The reservoir and rock properties of each well such as aver- administration of clay and water to carry the cuttings to age permeability, porosity distribution, and the gas volume the surface equipment, function as a lubricant for drilling 1 3 Gas Produc on (MSCF/Day) Water Produc on (STB/Day) Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 7 of 12 75 Fig. 8 Water cut percentage for Water Cut Fracon for each well each well 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 200 400 600 800 1000 120014001600 1800 Time (Days) Water Cut Fracon(Well-01) Water Cut Fracon(Well-02) Water Cut Fracon(Well-03) Water Cut Fracon(Well-04) Water Cut Fracon(Well-05) Water Cut Fracon(Well-06) Water Cut Fracon(Well-07) Table 1 Rock and reservoir characteristics uses of water volume in each procedure are described in Table 2. Well no. Porosity Average perme- Gas volume As can be seen in Table 3, the most volume of consumed ability in gas cap water is spent in the hydraulic fracturing procedures. In % mD MMCSF addition, lubrication processes and drilling operations are Well-01 8.65–9.13 12.37 835 played the least significant role in water consumptions. Well-02 7.98–8.34 11.52 920 Well-03 8.12–8.57 13.69 960 Produced water management Well-04 6.42–7.09 8.03 714 Well-05 6.84–7.03 5.34 6151 Produced water has been exerted a profound impact in the Well-06 5.76–6.16 4.27 8000 environmental and economic prosperity of shale oil and gas Well-07 5.48–5.97 3.89 9835 operation and its vital development strategies; in respect of the way, it acts as the byproduct energy in the development of oil and gas reservoirs. Hence, water production should Table 2 Relatively estimated water volume for each well be significantly performed to be brilliantly succeeded in developmental plans. The feasibility of produced water Well no. Well type Average water use reuse is utterly dependent on three central phenomena. First (million gallons) and the most important one is the volume of the produced Well-01 Oil shale 4.80 water generated. It should be noted that the initial amount Well-02 Oil shale 6.40 of water generated is being added to these measurements Well-03 Oil shale 5.90 and it considered as the only first few weeks after simu- Well-04 Oil shale 10.84 lation processes, because it significantly affected the cal- Well-05 Gas shale 3.3 culations. Since then, the proportionality of time with the Well-06 Gas shale 4.5 quantity of produced water is of great importance to measure Well-07 Gas shale 5.4 the rate of water production and how it would be declined in the extended durations. For example, such wells with a large volume of produced water at the preliminary stages of operations would be elected for reuse treatments regard- bit and other parts of drilling facilities; and, in hydraulic fracturing, the mixture of water and sand is administered. ing their capability of transportation to the store locations. The last significant factor to have a steep rise in economic The total of water volume which is required for drilling a shale well is approximately 65,000–600,000 gallons. In prosperity is the continuous production volume of water which helps to remain tanks and trucks movable all over Table 1, the relatively estimated water volume for each of the shale wells is explained statistically. Furthermore, the the oilfield unit. These three substantial factors would make 1 3 Water Cut Fracon 75 Page 8 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Table 3 Uses of water volume Well no. Water use in hydraulic frac- Water use in lubrication pro- Water use in the drilling in each procedure a turing (million gallons) cesses (million gallons) operations (million gal- lons) Well-01 4.455 0.145 0.200 Well-02 5.984 0.212 0.204 Well-03 5.540 0.185 0.175 Well-04 13.651 1.234 0.286 Well-05 2.720 0.216 0.364 Well-06 3.860 0.300 0.340 Well-07 4.910 0.197 0.293 Drilling operations entail all the activities such as making water-based muds, carrying cuttings to the sur- face, etc a breakthrough in the independence of water sources from distillation, evaporation, and crystallization processes. alternative sources and give petroleum industries the chance These techniques are utilized to treat dissolved solids, pri- to schedule a wide range of hydraulic fracturing and proper marily consisting of chlorides and salts, that is to say, that drilling operations simultaneously due to virtually eliminate it contains dissolved barium, strontium, and some dissolved the vast sums of money and time to provide water for their radionuclides on some occasions. As a matter of fact, these performances. In addition to these crucial parameters, long- dissolved parameters are actively tricky, and energy con- term produced water production is of paramount importance, sumed to treat and can only be separated with this advanced in respect of the way, those wells that produce vast quantity membrane and thermal technologies. of produced water for long time duration periods will be urgently needed a disposal or reuse management selection in the nearest areas to the field to retain the economic viability of the operation. Results Techniques for managing the produced water According to the performed analysis and experimental from oilfields evaluations, the utilization of water for hydraulic fractur- ing operations is higher than that for the conventional gas Energy and appropriate, necessary equipment exercise a production but is in the low range of that for conventional dominant influence on the control of water composition oil production. The volume of water which is used for impurities such as large quantity of natural salts, minerals, hydraulic fracturing procedures varies regarding the type and toxic heavy metals which they are an internal part of of drilled wells such as some vertical vs. horizontal wells, produced water and lead to reduce the quality of water at length of laterals, and fracture fluid types. Furthermore, the surficial wellbore facilities. Therefore, administer the proper possibility of water occurrence is utterly depended on the policies to impart the best quality of produced water exert a local sources of water supply. Produced water has entailed considerable influence on the drilling and production opera- all sources of water such as returning water to the surface, tions and lessen the inefficiency of current methodologies flow back of injected water during the hydraulic fracturing by applying the high quality of water. To achieve this goal, performances as well as natural formation water. Although two recent and practical techniques are operated in oilfield produced water is generated for the well lifespan, its vol- units to directly affect the key parameters such as energy, ume might be efficiently altered by its mobilization on each. environmental, and economic issues. There are a wide range of quality for produced water which These methods entail conventional treatment and can also vary tremendously from brackish (not fresh, but less advanced treatment. The traditional treatment includes floc- saline than seawater) to saline (similar salinity to seawater) culation, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and lime to brine (which can have salinity levels multiple times higher softening water treatment processes. These treatment pro- than seawater). Furthermore, in this part of extensive study, cedures are significantly impacted the water impurities sus- two laboratory experimental field tests are being performed pended and colloidal solids, oil and grease, hardness com- to enhance the oil and gas productivity; in respect of the pounds, and other non-dissolved parameters. Furthermore, way, for oil shale wells, two sets of experimental analysis these processes are much less energy intensive than the salt (hydraulic fracturing and water injectivity) are operated on separation treatments. On the contrary, advanced treatment the cores which was taken from the wells 01–04; and for gas technology includes reverse osmosis membranes, thermal shale wells, only hydraulic fracturing is performed because 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 9 of 12 75 of the proportionality of this technique rather than water Oil Producon aer Hydraulic Fracturing injectivity. The results of these investigations are as below; Experimental field application of hydraulic fracturing and water injectivity in oil shale wells To investigate the water volume which is needed for water injectivity and hydraulic fracturing experiments and how 0 1000 2000 30004000 5000 6000 this methodology would enhance the oil production, the oil Time (Days) production curves for each well, and the water volume which Oil Producon(Well-01) Oil Producon(Well-02) is required to be supplied from external resources are sche- Oil Producon(Well-03) Oil Producon(Well-04) matically depicted in Figs. 9 and 10. As it is evident from Fig. 9, water injection would enhance the oil production for Fig. 10 Oil production after hydraulic fracturing a specific period, and then, it has decreased slightly. Moreo- ver, hydraulic fracturing regarding the opening of fractures improve the oil volume production drastically in the first and cracks has caused to improve the oil volume production drastically in the first steps of fracturing procedures, and steps of fracturing procedures, and after that, by producing the specific oil volume, it lessened slightly. after that, by producing the specific oil volume, it lessened slightly; it is shown in Fig. 10. The average rate of water production in each scenario and the required water volume for each well is statistically The average rate of water production in each scenario and the required water volume for each well is statistically explained in Table 6. It’s a foregone conclusion that provid- ing required water volume by the water produced water in explained in Tables 4 and 5. It is a foregone conclusion that providing required water volume by the water produced the surface would significantly eliminate vast sums of expen- ditures in water supplementary and subsequently would be water in the surface would significantly eliminate vast sums of expenditures in water supplementary and subsequently an accurate method of saving other water resources due to the water scarcest. would be an accurate method of saving other water resources due to the water scarcest. Experimental field application of hydraulic Discussion fracturing in gas shale wells However, numerous research studies (Oetjen et al. 2017, 2018; Thacker et  al. 2015) have been widely reported To investigate the water volume which is needed for hydrau- lic fracturing experiments and how this methodology would in the literature about the different types of separation methods of particulate materials from flow-back water; enhance the gas production, the gas production curves for each well and the water volume which is required to be sup- it should be noted that this procedure needs to be more concentrated about the utilization of separation techniques plied from external resources are schematically depicted in Fig. 11. As it is evident from Fig. 11, hydraulic fracturing and its optimum efficiency to investigate the significant principles such as high amount of TOC in water return regarding the opening of fractures and cracks has caused to and conductivity of particles such as ion particles that would be beneficial for petroleum industries. In addition, Oil Producon aer Water Injecon according to the results of this comprehensive study, it is noticeable that reinjection of produced water in the Table 4 Required and produced water in water injectivity Well no. Average required water vol- Average produced water in ume for injectivity (million the surface (million gallons) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 gallons) Time (Days) Well-01 3.951 1.684 Oil Producon(Well-01) Oil Producon(Well-02) Well-02 4.625 1.8547 Oil Producon(Well-03) Oil Producon(Well-04) Well-03 3.684 1.4235 Well-04 11.284 5.7342 Fig. 9 Oil production after water injectivity 1 3 Oil Producon (STB/Day) Oil Producon (STB/Day) 75 Page 10 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Table 5 Required and produced Well no. Average required water volume for hydraulic frac- Average produced water in water for hydraulic fracturing turing (million gallons) the surface (million gallons) Well-01 4.455 2.6431 Well-02 5.984 3.1462 Well-03 5.540 2.9345 Well-04 13.651 7.7461 Fig. 11 Gas production after Gas Produc on a� er Hydraulic Fracturing hydraulic fracturing 010002000 3000 4000 50006000 Time (Days) Gas Produc on(Well-05) Gas Produc on(Well-06) Gas Produc on(Well-07) Table 6 Required and produced Well no. Average required water volume for hydraulic frac- Average produced water in water for hydraulic fracturing turing (million gallons) the surface (million gallons) Well-01 2.720 1.3451 Well-02 3.860 2.0132 Well-03 4.910 2.7651 Well-04 2.720 1.2914 surface in both water injectivity and hydraulic fractur- contain more than 30,000 ppm TDS, and this is why the ing techniques would be considered as the substantial high salinity content that is kept in solution with water methodologies to decrease the urgent needs of water vol- should be virtually eliminated. ume from other resources and might virtually eliminate the unnecessary expenses like transferring of water from considerable distances. Although the stunning range of Conclusion research enhancement and substantial technology devel- opment has concentrated on treatment methodologies to Reinjection of water produced in the water injectivity illustrate and investigate the optimum quality of water pro- and hydraulic fracturing techniques is considered as the duced by removing unnecessary internal materials thereby, principal efficient way to reduce the urgent need for water it would be beneficial for further procedures and opera- resources dramatically. The main conclusions which are tions. These alternative elections contain water reuse in being significantly reported in this comprehensive study oil and gas operations, municipal, agricultural, and indus- are as the following statements: trial processes. The Lower amount of dissolved solids pro- duced water must be under 30,000 ppm TDS which may • Due to the fact that water scarcest in the coming decades be feasible to treat in other activities outside of oil and would be a significant concern for petroleum industries, gas operations. Higher dissolved solid produced waters providing a part volume of water which is needed for 1 3 Gas Produc on (MSCF/Day) Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 11 of 12 75 Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, US Gulf Coast region, 2011 oil recovery enhancement would be a significant step to (2327–6932) eliminate enormous expenses of water supplies. Engle MA, Cozzarelli IM, Smith BD (2014) USGS investigations Regarding the results of this extensive study, it is clari- of water produced during hydrocarbon reservoir development fied that hydraulic fracturing enhances the oil and gas (2327–6932) Esser BK, Beller HR, Carroll SA, Cherry JA, Gillespie J, Jackson RB, production rather than water injectivity because of Parker B (2015) Recommendations on model criteria for ground- its efficient property to open the closed and dead-end water sampling, testing, and monitoring of oil and gas develop- pores and made a breakthrough in the first period of its ment in California. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, process. Therefore, providing the supplementary water Livermore Ferrer I, Thurman EM (2015) Analysis of hydraulic fracturing addi- for this operational performance is a significant con- tives by LC/Q-TOF-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 407(21):6417–6428 cern and reinjection of produced water on the surface Fischer G, Hizsnyik E, Tramberend S, van Velthuizen H (2017) Policy would be a considerable assessment. support for sustainable development: scarcity, abundance and Although both technologies for water treatment play a alternative uses of land and water resources Freyman M (2014) Hydraulic fracturing and water stress: water substantial role in every aspect of petroleum industries’ demand by the numbers. Ceres 85:49–50 operational performances, advanced treatment which is Gallegos TJ, Varela BA, Haines SS, Engle MA (2015) Hydrau- metamorphically called “the second level”; in respect lic fracturing water use variability in the United States and of the way, it would be ensured that most of the non- potential environmental implications. Water Resour Res 51(7):5839–5845 dissolved parameters on the water produced are removed Glassman D, Wucker M, Isaacman T, Champilou C (2011) The prior to the dissolved solids treatment process. water-energy nexus. Adding Water to the Energy Agenda, A The feasibility of produced water reuse is dependent on World Policy Paper, EBG Capital, Environmental Investments three primary factors: quantity, duration, and quality of Holt T, Lindeberg E, Wessel-Berg D (2009) EOR and CO2 dis- posal—Economic and capacity potential in the North Sea. produced water generated. Energy Procedia 1(1):4159–4166 Horner R, Harto C, Jackson R, Lowry ER, Brandt A, Yeskoo T, Clark C (2016) Water use and management in the Bakken shale oil Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Crea- play in North Dakota. Environ Sci Technol 50(6):3275–3282 tive Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creat iveco Jin L, Sorensen JA, Hawthorne SB, Smith SA, Pekot LJ, Bosshart mmons.or g/licenses/b y/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribu- NW, Gorecki CD (2017) Improving oil recovery by use of car- tion, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate bon dioxide in the bakken unconventional system: a laboratory credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the investigation. SPE Reservoir Eval Eng 20(03):602–612 Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Kharaka YK, Gunter WD, Aggarwal PK, Perkins EH, DeBraal JD (1988) SOLMINEQ. 88: a computer program for geochemi- cal modeling of water-rock interactions. US geological survey water-resources investigation report, 88, 4227 Kondash A, Vengosh A (2015) Water footprint of hydraulic fractur- References ing. Environ Sci Technol Lett 2(10):276–280 Mantell ME (2011) Produced water reuse and recycling challenges Al Dabaj AA, Lazim SA, Al-Sallami OA (2018) Comparison between and opportunities across major shale plays. Paper presented at ESP and gas lift in Buzurgan oil field/Iraq. J Eng 24(1):83–96 the USEPA technical workshops for the hydraulic fracturing Arnell NW, Lloyd-Hughes B (2014) The global-scale impacts of cli- study mate change on water resources and flooding under new climate Mitra S (2004) Sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry, and socio-economic scenarios. Clim Change 122(1–2):127–140 vol 237. John Wiley, Hoboken Chen H, Carter KE (2016) Water usage for natural gas production Nicot J-P, Scanlon BR (2012) Water use for shale-gas production in through hydraulic fracturing in the United States from 2008 to Texas. US Environ Sci Technol 46(6):3580–3586 2014. J Environ Manag 170:152–159 Nicot J-P, Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Costley RA (2014) Source and fate Clark C, Veil J (2009) Produced water volumes and management prac- of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett shale: a historical tices in the United States. https ://doi.org/10.2172/10073 97 perspective. Environ Sci Technol 48(4):2464–2471 Davarpanah A, Nassabeh M (2017a) Optimization of drilling param- Oetjen K, Giddings CGS, McLaughlin M, Nell M, Blotevogel J, Hel- eters by analysis of formation strength properties with using bling DE, Higgins CP (2017) Emerging analytical methods for mechanical specific energy. In: Bulgarian Chemical Communi - the characterization and quantification of organic contaminants cations. Special Issue J. pp 364–375 in flowback and produced water. Trends Environ Anal Chem Davarpanah A, Nassabeh MM (2017b) Recommendations for optimiz- 15:12–23. https ://doi.org/10.1016/j.teac.2017.07.002 ing the efficiency of polymer flooding techniques in production Oetjen K, Chan KE, Gulmark K, Christensen JH, Blotevogel J, Borch operation of an oilfield. Electron J Biol 13(3):210–213 T, Higgins CP (2018) Temporal characterization and statisti- Davarpanah A, Mirshekari B, Behbahani TJ, Hemmati M (2018) Inte- cal analysis of flowback and produced waters and their poten- grated production logging tools approach for convenient experi- tial for reuse. Sci Total Environ 619–620:654–664. https ://doi. mental individual layer permeability measurements in a multi- org/10.1016/j.scito tenv.2017.11.078 layered fractured reservoir. J Pet Explor Prod Technol. https://doi. Orem W, Tatu C, Varonka M, Lerch H, Bates A, Engle M, McIntosh J org/10.1007/s1320 2-017-0422-3 (2014) Organic substances in produced and formation water from Dubiel RF, Pitman JK, Pearson ON, Pearson K, Kinney SA, Lewan unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale. Int J Coal MD et al (2012) Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources Geol 126:20–31 in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper 1 3 75 Page 12 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Pedro-Monzonís M, Solera A, Ferrer J, Estrela T, Paredes-Arquiola J Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Nicot JP (2014b) Will water scarcity in semi- (2015) A review of water scarcity and drought indexes in water arid regions limit hydraulic fracturing of shale plays? Environ resources planning and management. J Hydrol 527:482–493 Res Lett 9(12):124011 Rabbani E, Davarpanah A, Memariani M (2018) An experimental Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Nicot J-P (2015) Response to comment on study of acidizing operation performances on the wellbore pro- “comparison of water use for hydraulic fracturing for unconven- ductivity index enhancement. J Pet Explor Prod Technol. https :// tional oil and gas versus conventional oil”. Environ Sci Technol doi.org/10.1007/s1320 2-018-0441-8 49(10):6360–6361 Rodriguez-Aller M, Cusumano A, Alain B, Guillarme D, Fekete S Thacker JB et al (2015) Chemical analysis of wastewater from uncon- (2016) Importance of vial shape and type on the reproducibility ventional drilling operations. Water 7(4):1568–1579. https ://doi. of size exclusion chromatography measurement of monoclonal org/10.3390/w7041 568 antibodies. J Chromatogr B 1032:131–138 Thurman EM, Ferrer I, Rosenblum J, Linden K, Ryan JN (2017) Identi- Rowan EL, Engle MA, Kraemer TF, Schroeder KT, Hammack RW, fication of polypropylene glycols and polyethylene glycol carbox- Doughten MW (2015) Geochemical and isotopic evolution of ylates in flowback and produced water from hydraulic fracturing. water produced from Middle Devonian Marcellus shale gas wells, J Hazard Mater 323:11–17 Appalachian basin Pennsylvania. AAPG Bull 99(2):181–206 Wilson JM, VanBriesen JM (2012) Oil and gas produced water man- Scanlon BR, Duncan I, Reedy RC (2013a) Drought and the water– agement and surface drinking water sources in Pennsylvania. energy nexus in Texas. Environ Res Lett 8(4):045033 Environ Pract 14(4):288–300 Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Duncan I, Mullican WF, Young M (2013b) Controls on water use for thermoelectric generation: case study Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to Texas. US Environ Sci Technol 47(19):11326–11334 jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Nicot J-P (2014a) Comparison of water use for hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas versus conven- tional oil. Environ Sci Technol 48(20):12386–12393 1 3 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Applied Water Science Springer Journals

The integrated feasibility analysis of water reuse management in the petroleum exploration performances of unconventional shale reservoirs

Free
12 pages

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/the-integrated-feasibility-analysis-of-water-reuse-management-in-the-0p0mFDaLb4
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by The Author(s)
Subject
Earth Sciences; Hydrogeology; Water Industry/Water Technologies; Industrial and Production Engineering; Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution; Nanotechnology; Private International Law, International & Foreign Law, Comparative Law
ISSN
2190-5487
eISSN
2190-5495
D.O.I.
10.1007/s13201-018-0717-7
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Regarding the dramatic increase of water additional resource administration in numerous drilling industries’ operational performances and oil/gas extractions, water supply plays a significant role in their performances as efficient as optimum operations, in respect of the way, this utilization is often invisible to the public eye. The necessity of water in a wide variety of drilling operation due to its vast applicant in several functions is widely reported in the literature that has been required to remain these procedures plateau. The objective of this comprehensive study is to conduct an investigation into the studied field and analyze the assessment of necessary water and produced water which is provided in the surface for reinjection procedures in the hydraulic fracturing and water injectivity; in respect of the way, petroleum and drilling industries will push themselves into limits to find suitable water sources from a local source to encapsulate their economic prosperities and virtually eliminate extra expenditures. In comparison to other industries and consumers, oil and gas development is not a significant water consumer, and its water demands can exert profound impacts on local water resources, and this is why it imposes particular challenges among water users in a vast majority of fields and areas in times of drought. Moreover, water has become an increasingly scarce and costly commodity over the past decades, and operators are being beneficially noted that awareness of recycling and reusing phenomenon that has treated effluent is both costs competent and socially responsible. Consequently, energy, environmental situation, and economic prosperity considerations should be analytically and preferably investigated to cover every eventuality and each possibility of disposal and water reuse options. Keywords Drilling industries · Water reuse · Economic prosperity · Water treatment · Reuse options Introduction inexpensive in those regions where there is abundant local access to rivers or lakes, and local regulations permit with- The volume of total freshwater consumption by individuals drawal, in respect of the way, petroleum operators are trying in the earth is only 2.5%, because most of it (97.5%) which is to achieve to cheap water which is dwindling and compa- too salty for human use, that is to say, that just less than 1% nies have to search further to access rig water (Kondash and of this fresh water is available for direct human consump- Vengosh 2015; Nicot and Scanlon 2012; Nicot et al. 2014; tion. Due to continual population growth, agricultural and Scanlon et al. 2014a, b). Water reuse offers an enormous industrial developments, and climate change effects, water chance for operators to access to independent sources of resource scarcity has become a critical issue in many parts water which it is dependable on some occasions. Further- of the world (Arnell and Lloyd-Hughes 2014; Fischer et al. more, it would be locally controlled and play a significant 2017; Freyman 2014; Gallegos et al. 2015; Pedro-Monzo- role in the environmentally friendly use. The proportional- nís et al. 2015). The cost of rig water could be relatively ity of water resource distribution in each category is dem- onstrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. As can be seen in Fig. 1, the volume of fresh water is 1/32 of saline water in the earth, * Afshin Davarpanah and this amount would be drastically decreased shortly due Afshin.Davarpanah@srbiau.ac.ir to the vast consumption of fresh water by individuals and 1 numerous industries (Davarpanah et al. 2018). Department of Petroleum Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 75 Page 2 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 fracturing is a controlled operation that pumps fluid and a EARTH'S WATER DISTRIBUTION propping agent through the wellbore to the target geological [CATEGORY formation at high pressure in multiple intervals or stages, to NAME] [PERCENTAGE] create fractures in the formation and facilitate production of hydrocarbons. Hydraulic fracturing is a safe and proven way to develop natural gas and oil; it has been used through- Fresh Water out the oil and gas industry for about 60 years. Therefore, 3% water usages and the water reuse in petroleum industries have become one of the significant concerns in petroleum exploration and production industries as an energy issue. Water exercise plays a dominant influence in the life cycle of petroleum industries as below: Fig. 1 Percentage of earth’s water sources • considered as the cooling equipment in mud circulation which helps to cool the drill bit and carries rock cutting FRESH WATER DISTRIBUTION out of the borehole; Icecaps and Glaciers Ground Water Other Surface Water hydraulic fracturing; • enhanced oil recovery techniques; 29% water flooding; 1% • steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) (Clark and Veil 2009; Holt et al. 2009). 3% Two of the main challenges of petroleum industries are 2% providing the sufficient amount and appropriate quality of 68% water and find novel solutions to properly manage the waste- water generation. Wastewater composition in most of the cases is being categorized as follows: Fig. 2 Percentage of freshwater sources high dissolved organic matter, including volatile com- pounds and hydrocarbons; Surface Water Distrib on high salt content (often > 35 g/L); • metals (e.g., iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium, 2% 11% barium, etc.); • dissolved gases (e.g., H2S); naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM); 87% • high concentrations of suspended solids, oil, and grease(Chen and Carter 2016; Davarpanah and Nassa- beh 2017a, b; Dubiel et al. 2012; Engle et al. 2014; Esser et al. 2015). RiverSwampsLakes Waste management Fig. 3 Percentage of surface freshwater sources There are four methodologies and techniques of waste management which are addressed to improve the quality of The distribution of freshwater and surface fresh water is produced or injected water during drilling operations that have entailed reduce, recycle, reuse, and recover. Reduce depicted in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. Each year, the total volume of produced wastewater by is the generation of less waste through more efficient practices such as process modification, use of non-toxic petroleum industries are exceeded more than 800 billion gal- lons. These wastewater productions contain the large vol- additives, inventory control, and management. Recycle/ reuse is to convert waste back into a product such as burn- umes generated wastewater over the life of the well and mas- sive volumes of water which is urgently needed in hydraulic ing waste oil for energy, oily wastes for road construction and stabilization, recycling drilling muds, and recycling fracturing performances (Davarpanah and Nassabeh 2017a, b; Scanlon et  al. 2013a, b; 2014a, b; 2015). Hydraulic scrap metals. Recover is extracting materials or energy 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 3 of 12 75 from waste such as recovery of oil from tank bottoms and plenty of off-the-shelf treatments, and unlimited supply of sludges (Glassman et al. 2011). These four parameters are applications. These steps are being illustrated graphically followed by waste treatment and disposal. The treatment in the PFD diagram in Fig. 4. utilizes techniques to minimize the amount and toxicity of waste to minimize the amount that has to be disposed of. Treatment challenges For waste disposal, environmentally sound and approved methods should be used. Regarding local geology, there Oil and gas wastewater treatment is considered as one of the are million tons of in situ water which are produced by leading pollution possibilities owing to including a broad production operations on the surficial wellbore equip - variety mixture of salt and suspended solids in high con- ment and significant amount of these waters are separated centrations, metals such as arsenic and barium, organics like by powerful equipment; however, these obtained water hydrocarbon compounds, and potentially naturally occurring sources may contain chemical pollutants, heavy metals, radioactive material. It is of paramount importance to clarify oily particles, etc., which have potentially devastating the hazardous risks of this toxicity appropriately and control effects on the environmental processes and they will not their mobilization, and study their occurrence dispersion, be capable for human treatments due to their toxic and det- their settlement time in the environment and their corrosive rimental effects. One of the primary reasons of this issue effects on the food chain. Some “light-treatment” techniques is that operators may add many chemicals to this fluid to are widely administered in petroleum industries which most make the process more productive. Another underlying of these treatment methodologies have determined when assumption which is to be elaborated about this phenome- wastewater treating is entirely variable, and its appropriate non would be natural salty water that is trapped in the rock application is prohibitively expensive to construct, oper- matrixes. Thereby, a large volume of this water is trans- ate, and maintain. Thereby, a few acceptance standards due ferred to the surface. The possibility of assessing the dire to how to identify what is in each waste stream and which consequences of fossil and hydrocarbon fuel development adequate methods to clean this are being presented. One of on the water life cycle are being investigated and widely the main steps in the rapid acceleration of water reuse is the reviewed by numerous scientists and engineers to optimize advent of advanced membrane treatment methodologies, and the maximum water reuse in operations; these extensive their cost reductions are classified into four categories; studies include water management practices; recycling, treatment, disposal of wastewater, and the impacts on the membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF). watershed and surrounding environment. Reuse and recy- ultrafiltration (UF). cling processes are practiced by petroleum companies; in nanofiltration (NF). such areas, there are restriction rules for disposal wells and reverse osmosis (RO) (Orem et al. 2014). freshwater is more expensive and harder to find (Kharaka et al. 1988). Using MF or UF in municipal wastewater reuse, espe- Lots of water sources in petroleum industries include cially for RO pretreatment, started to multiply in the late produced water, refinery wastewater, marketing termi- 1990s. Nowadays, the integrated utilization of MF and UF nal water, ground water, storm water, parking lot runoff, with RO has widely available and has reached a standard Fig. 4 Typical water treatment PFD (Kharaka et al. 1988) 1 3 75 Page 4 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 in municipal advanced recycled water projects, especially fracturing are required (Rabbani et al. 2018; Rowan et al. for indirect potable water reuse cases where the recycled 2015; Thacker et al. 2015). water is re-injected to the groundwater aquifer to augment the existing water sources. Historically, petrochemical plants and refineries have used RO as pretreatment for ion exchange Produced water reuse and recycling in some demineralizers to produce pure water for boiler feed and of the oilfields process uses. Since 1999, more than ten UF systems have been installed as pretreatment for RO in petrol facilities Produced water in two of the Barnett shale reservoirs which for boiler feed-water demineralization. RO, in the form of are located in the northern portion of Pennsylvania is being VSEP (vibratory shear enhancing processing), has also been studied, and their comparison between them is clarified as used in the full scale for removing selenium from stripped below to continue to minimize the amount of freshwater sour water to help a large refinery meet stringent discharge utilization in drilling and production operations; in respect requirements. In addition, there are other types of prepar- of the way, it lessened the extra expenditures of freshwater ing techniques for separating solids and other particles from supplements (Mantell 2011): water which are necessary to reuse it again in drilling and operational performances. These techniques are dilution, fil- Shale field-1 water reuse tration, and centrifugation, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), support-assisted liquid–liquid extraction (Al Dabaj et al. In this field, produced water has generally had higher 2018), solid-phase extraction (Oetjen et al. 2017, 2018), levels of TDS, low amounts of TSS, and moderate scaling and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME). Dilution serves tendency; that is to say, that, in this field, the volume of the purpose of two significant principles: lessen the sample water reused and treated by membrane treatment techniques viscosity which plays a vital role on the analysis of water is relatively 8% of the total amount of water which is used injections and flow backs; in respect of the way, viscosity for drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations. However, reduction causes the enhancement of re-productivity. Fur- water reuse treatments play a significant role in production thermore, dilution procedures altered the matrixes of the and drilling operations; logistical and economical perfor- sample and prompted to have more compatibility with fur- mances impose specific restrictions in the administration of ther analyzing. Filtration and centrifugation are other kinds large volume of water reuse in this field (Jin et al. 2017; of separation for virtually eliminating the particulate com- Mantell 2011). ponents to deal more compatibility with the analytical meth- odologies. Moreover, filtration processes would not have the Shale field-2 water reuse ability of dissolved fractional component alteration (Ferrer and Thurman 2015; Mitra 2004; Oetjen et al. 2017, 2018; In this field, produced water has generally had lower Rodriguez-Aller et al. 2016; Thurman et al. 2017). levels of TDS, moderate amounts of TSS, and low scaling tendency; that is to say, that, in this field, the volume of water reused and treated by membrane treatment techniques Production from unconventional shale oil and gas is relatively 8% of the total amount of water which is used plays for drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations with water reuse production with a target goal of 23% reuse in the play. Accumulations of hydrocarbons such as oil and gas in nat- Regarding low levels of TSS, it does not urgently need of ural conventional and unconventional reservoirs through- specific filtration before reuse operation. In comparison to out the world which most of them were migrated from the previous category, logistical and economical perfor- clean fine-grained, dark-gray, or black organic-rich sedi- mances impose particular restrictions in the administration mentary source rocks were referred to organic-rich shales. of large volume of water reuse in this field (Horner et al. Over the past decades, organic-rich shale formations have 2016; Mantell 2011). been considered as the source rocks in petroleum reser- Total dissolved solids (TDS) are being used for the fol- voirs, that is to say, that, hydrocarbons originated and lowing purposes: migrated into sandstone and limestone of various reser- voir qualities, because unconventional reservoirs have low It is used as a measurement of inorganic salts, organic permeability than other reservoirs and have less economic matter, and other dissolved materials in water. volumes of oil and gas produced in oilfields. To produce It is used as a secondary drinking water contaminant. commercial quantities from the unconventional reser- It can cause some operational problems for drinking voirs, a combination of increased oil and gas prices and water systems. improved technology of horizontal drilling and multi-stage 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 5 of 12 75 It can cause toxicity to aquatic life through increases in nearest well information was 80 km away. Geologist fore- salinity, changes in the ionic composition of the water, cast from this well required drilling through reactive shales and the toxicity of individual ions. in the member. It produces a smaller volume of produced Significant sources of TDS are being found in: water initially (compared to the other significant plays) and steel industry; has inferior quality produced water. It has had higher lev- pharmaceutical manufacturing; els of TDS and high amounts of TSS, and produced water mining operations; has high scaling tendency. In this field, low produced water oil and gas extraction; volumes, poor produced water quality, and the resulting eco- some power plants; nomics have prevented successful reuse of produced water. landfills; However, due to the large volumes of higher quality drill- food processing facilities (Wilson and VanBriesen 2012). ing wastewater generated during the drilling process, it is actively exploring options to reuse this wastewater in sub- Although there are numerous studies and research activi- sequent drilling and fracturing operations. ties which are widely reported in the literature to emphasize the importance of flow-back waters, in this comprehensive study, the author is tried to investigate the water treatment Well performance of shale reservoirs and how to provide sufficient water utili- zation for each well by the optimization of each procedure. The studied field entails seven production wells which three Furthermore, by serving the purpose of water reuse in drill- of them are located in the gas shale layer (well-05–07), and ing and exploration industries, the administration of fresh other wells are drilled horizontally on the oil shale layers. water is virtually reduced and subsequently will help to the The reason for drilling the wells in the horizontal form water scarcity in the world. is that high potentiality of wells for hydraulic fracturing regarding the high connectivity of the fractures and cracks has successfully operated. The production performance for Methodology and application of produced each well is schematically demonstrated in Figs. 5, 6, and 7 water reuse to espouse the importance of productivity rate for each well. As it is evident from Fig. 5, well-04 has the maximum Studied field oil production rate rather than other wells and well-05–07 due to its original properties (gas shale reservoirs) does not The vertical wells to be drilled were exploration wells in the produce any oil during the production operation. Moreover, southwest Iran’s oilfield which is called South-Aban oilfield as it is shown clearly in Fig. 6, water production has a similar that could provide information on potential reservoirs and decline pattern as oil production; in respect of the way, the lithological data of the field. This oilfield unit distributed volume of water production has decreased gradually. into the Asmari, Pabdeh, Gorpey, Ilam, and Sarvak forma- As it is clarified in Fig.  7, due to the more production tions which are located in the Cheshmeh-Khosh operational of gas volume in the gas shale wells, this amount of gas field. No offset data were available on the well, and the has increased dramatically in the first stages of production. Fig. 5 Oil production rate for Oil Producon Decline for each well each well 0 200 400600 800 10001200 1400 1600 1800 Time (Days) Oil Producon(Well-01) Oil Producon(Well-02) Oil Producon(Well-03) Oil Producon(Well-04) Oil Producon(Well-05) Oil Producon(Well-06) Oil Producon(Well-07) 1 3 Oil Producon (STB/Day) 75 Page 6 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Fig. 6 Water production rate for Water Produc on Decline for each well each well 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Time (Days) Water Produc on(Well-01) Water Produc on(Well-02) Water Produc on(Well-03) Water Produc on(Well-04) Water Produc on(Well-05) Water Produc on(Well-06) Water Produc on(Well-07) Fig. 7 Gas production rate for Gas Produc on Decline for each well each well 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Time (Days) Gas Produc on(Well-01) Gas Produc on(Well-02) Gas Produc on(Well-03) Gas Produc on(Well-04) Gas Produc on(Well-05) Gas Produc on(Well-06) Gas Produc on(Well-07) Since then, this volume has reached approximately a plateau in gas cap are being statistically explained in the ordinary in the next steps. format in Table 1. As it is clarified in Table  1, porosity var- Furthermore, regarding the constant water production ies approximately between 5.48 and 9.13 in this field; in of the wells in shale reservoirs, it is a common reason for respect of the way, it changes a little in some parts of the unconventional reservoirs than conventional reservoirs that e fi ld. Moreover, the range of permeability which is obtained has a gradual rise in the water production. Therefore, the by production logging tools is relatively 8.03–12.37 for oil water cut fraction for each well is being depicted in Fig. 8. shale reservoirs and 3.89–5.34 for gas shale reservoirs. In As can be seen in Fig.  8, bypassing the production time, this field, oil saturation is assumed an average constant the fraction of water cut in all the wells has an approximate amount (approximately 0.42) and water saturation is aver- constant value and those wells that are drilled in the oil shale agely about 0.254. layers are more than wells which are drilled in gas shale lay- ers. This phenomenon might be related to the miscibility of Utilization of water in the development of shale oil and water which enables the water phase to mobilize to reservoir of the field the surface with oil in the solution phase. Water is considered as the fundamentally vital components Reservoir and rock properties in the construction of shale reservoirs. Some of the utiliza- tion of water in drilling and exploration industries are: the The reservoir and rock properties of each well such as aver- administration of clay and water to carry the cuttings to age permeability, porosity distribution, and the gas volume the surface equipment, function as a lubricant for drilling 1 3 Gas Produc on (MSCF/Day) Water Produc on (STB/Day) Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 7 of 12 75 Fig. 8 Water cut percentage for Water Cut Fracon for each well each well 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 200 400 600 800 1000 120014001600 1800 Time (Days) Water Cut Fracon(Well-01) Water Cut Fracon(Well-02) Water Cut Fracon(Well-03) Water Cut Fracon(Well-04) Water Cut Fracon(Well-05) Water Cut Fracon(Well-06) Water Cut Fracon(Well-07) Table 1 Rock and reservoir characteristics uses of water volume in each procedure are described in Table 2. Well no. Porosity Average perme- Gas volume As can be seen in Table 3, the most volume of consumed ability in gas cap water is spent in the hydraulic fracturing procedures. In % mD MMCSF addition, lubrication processes and drilling operations are Well-01 8.65–9.13 12.37 835 played the least significant role in water consumptions. Well-02 7.98–8.34 11.52 920 Well-03 8.12–8.57 13.69 960 Produced water management Well-04 6.42–7.09 8.03 714 Well-05 6.84–7.03 5.34 6151 Produced water has been exerted a profound impact in the Well-06 5.76–6.16 4.27 8000 environmental and economic prosperity of shale oil and gas Well-07 5.48–5.97 3.89 9835 operation and its vital development strategies; in respect of the way, it acts as the byproduct energy in the development of oil and gas reservoirs. Hence, water production should Table 2 Relatively estimated water volume for each well be significantly performed to be brilliantly succeeded in developmental plans. The feasibility of produced water Well no. Well type Average water use reuse is utterly dependent on three central phenomena. First (million gallons) and the most important one is the volume of the produced Well-01 Oil shale 4.80 water generated. It should be noted that the initial amount Well-02 Oil shale 6.40 of water generated is being added to these measurements Well-03 Oil shale 5.90 and it considered as the only first few weeks after simu- Well-04 Oil shale 10.84 lation processes, because it significantly affected the cal- Well-05 Gas shale 3.3 culations. Since then, the proportionality of time with the Well-06 Gas shale 4.5 quantity of produced water is of great importance to measure Well-07 Gas shale 5.4 the rate of water production and how it would be declined in the extended durations. For example, such wells with a large volume of produced water at the preliminary stages of operations would be elected for reuse treatments regard- bit and other parts of drilling facilities; and, in hydraulic fracturing, the mixture of water and sand is administered. ing their capability of transportation to the store locations. The last significant factor to have a steep rise in economic The total of water volume which is required for drilling a shale well is approximately 65,000–600,000 gallons. In prosperity is the continuous production volume of water which helps to remain tanks and trucks movable all over Table 1, the relatively estimated water volume for each of the shale wells is explained statistically. Furthermore, the the oilfield unit. These three substantial factors would make 1 3 Water Cut Fracon 75 Page 8 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Table 3 Uses of water volume Well no. Water use in hydraulic frac- Water use in lubrication pro- Water use in the drilling in each procedure a turing (million gallons) cesses (million gallons) operations (million gal- lons) Well-01 4.455 0.145 0.200 Well-02 5.984 0.212 0.204 Well-03 5.540 0.185 0.175 Well-04 13.651 1.234 0.286 Well-05 2.720 0.216 0.364 Well-06 3.860 0.300 0.340 Well-07 4.910 0.197 0.293 Drilling operations entail all the activities such as making water-based muds, carrying cuttings to the sur- face, etc a breakthrough in the independence of water sources from distillation, evaporation, and crystallization processes. alternative sources and give petroleum industries the chance These techniques are utilized to treat dissolved solids, pri- to schedule a wide range of hydraulic fracturing and proper marily consisting of chlorides and salts, that is to say, that drilling operations simultaneously due to virtually eliminate it contains dissolved barium, strontium, and some dissolved the vast sums of money and time to provide water for their radionuclides on some occasions. As a matter of fact, these performances. In addition to these crucial parameters, long- dissolved parameters are actively tricky, and energy con- term produced water production is of paramount importance, sumed to treat and can only be separated with this advanced in respect of the way, those wells that produce vast quantity membrane and thermal technologies. of produced water for long time duration periods will be urgently needed a disposal or reuse management selection in the nearest areas to the field to retain the economic viability of the operation. Results Techniques for managing the produced water According to the performed analysis and experimental from oilfields evaluations, the utilization of water for hydraulic fractur- ing operations is higher than that for the conventional gas Energy and appropriate, necessary equipment exercise a production but is in the low range of that for conventional dominant influence on the control of water composition oil production. The volume of water which is used for impurities such as large quantity of natural salts, minerals, hydraulic fracturing procedures varies regarding the type and toxic heavy metals which they are an internal part of of drilled wells such as some vertical vs. horizontal wells, produced water and lead to reduce the quality of water at length of laterals, and fracture fluid types. Furthermore, the surficial wellbore facilities. Therefore, administer the proper possibility of water occurrence is utterly depended on the policies to impart the best quality of produced water exert a local sources of water supply. Produced water has entailed considerable influence on the drilling and production opera- all sources of water such as returning water to the surface, tions and lessen the inefficiency of current methodologies flow back of injected water during the hydraulic fracturing by applying the high quality of water. To achieve this goal, performances as well as natural formation water. Although two recent and practical techniques are operated in oilfield produced water is generated for the well lifespan, its vol- units to directly affect the key parameters such as energy, ume might be efficiently altered by its mobilization on each. environmental, and economic issues. There are a wide range of quality for produced water which These methods entail conventional treatment and can also vary tremendously from brackish (not fresh, but less advanced treatment. The traditional treatment includes floc- saline than seawater) to saline (similar salinity to seawater) culation, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and lime to brine (which can have salinity levels multiple times higher softening water treatment processes. These treatment pro- than seawater). Furthermore, in this part of extensive study, cedures are significantly impacted the water impurities sus- two laboratory experimental field tests are being performed pended and colloidal solids, oil and grease, hardness com- to enhance the oil and gas productivity; in respect of the pounds, and other non-dissolved parameters. Furthermore, way, for oil shale wells, two sets of experimental analysis these processes are much less energy intensive than the salt (hydraulic fracturing and water injectivity) are operated on separation treatments. On the contrary, advanced treatment the cores which was taken from the wells 01–04; and for gas technology includes reverse osmosis membranes, thermal shale wells, only hydraulic fracturing is performed because 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 9 of 12 75 of the proportionality of this technique rather than water Oil Producon aer Hydraulic Fracturing injectivity. The results of these investigations are as below; Experimental field application of hydraulic fracturing and water injectivity in oil shale wells To investigate the water volume which is needed for water injectivity and hydraulic fracturing experiments and how 0 1000 2000 30004000 5000 6000 this methodology would enhance the oil production, the oil Time (Days) production curves for each well, and the water volume which Oil Producon(Well-01) Oil Producon(Well-02) is required to be supplied from external resources are sche- Oil Producon(Well-03) Oil Producon(Well-04) matically depicted in Figs. 9 and 10. As it is evident from Fig. 9, water injection would enhance the oil production for Fig. 10 Oil production after hydraulic fracturing a specific period, and then, it has decreased slightly. Moreo- ver, hydraulic fracturing regarding the opening of fractures improve the oil volume production drastically in the first and cracks has caused to improve the oil volume production drastically in the first steps of fracturing procedures, and steps of fracturing procedures, and after that, by producing the specific oil volume, it lessened slightly. after that, by producing the specific oil volume, it lessened slightly; it is shown in Fig. 10. The average rate of water production in each scenario and the required water volume for each well is statistically The average rate of water production in each scenario and the required water volume for each well is statistically explained in Table 6. It’s a foregone conclusion that provid- ing required water volume by the water produced water in explained in Tables 4 and 5. It is a foregone conclusion that providing required water volume by the water produced the surface would significantly eliminate vast sums of expen- ditures in water supplementary and subsequently would be water in the surface would significantly eliminate vast sums of expenditures in water supplementary and subsequently an accurate method of saving other water resources due to the water scarcest. would be an accurate method of saving other water resources due to the water scarcest. Experimental field application of hydraulic Discussion fracturing in gas shale wells However, numerous research studies (Oetjen et al. 2017, 2018; Thacker et  al. 2015) have been widely reported To investigate the water volume which is needed for hydrau- lic fracturing experiments and how this methodology would in the literature about the different types of separation methods of particulate materials from flow-back water; enhance the gas production, the gas production curves for each well and the water volume which is required to be sup- it should be noted that this procedure needs to be more concentrated about the utilization of separation techniques plied from external resources are schematically depicted in Fig. 11. As it is evident from Fig. 11, hydraulic fracturing and its optimum efficiency to investigate the significant principles such as high amount of TOC in water return regarding the opening of fractures and cracks has caused to and conductivity of particles such as ion particles that would be beneficial for petroleum industries. In addition, Oil Producon aer Water Injecon according to the results of this comprehensive study, it is noticeable that reinjection of produced water in the Table 4 Required and produced water in water injectivity Well no. Average required water vol- Average produced water in ume for injectivity (million the surface (million gallons) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 gallons) Time (Days) Well-01 3.951 1.684 Oil Producon(Well-01) Oil Producon(Well-02) Well-02 4.625 1.8547 Oil Producon(Well-03) Oil Producon(Well-04) Well-03 3.684 1.4235 Well-04 11.284 5.7342 Fig. 9 Oil production after water injectivity 1 3 Oil Producon (STB/Day) Oil Producon (STB/Day) 75 Page 10 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Table 5 Required and produced Well no. Average required water volume for hydraulic frac- Average produced water in water for hydraulic fracturing turing (million gallons) the surface (million gallons) Well-01 4.455 2.6431 Well-02 5.984 3.1462 Well-03 5.540 2.9345 Well-04 13.651 7.7461 Fig. 11 Gas production after Gas Produc on a� er Hydraulic Fracturing hydraulic fracturing 010002000 3000 4000 50006000 Time (Days) Gas Produc on(Well-05) Gas Produc on(Well-06) Gas Produc on(Well-07) Table 6 Required and produced Well no. Average required water volume for hydraulic frac- Average produced water in water for hydraulic fracturing turing (million gallons) the surface (million gallons) Well-01 2.720 1.3451 Well-02 3.860 2.0132 Well-03 4.910 2.7651 Well-04 2.720 1.2914 surface in both water injectivity and hydraulic fractur- contain more than 30,000 ppm TDS, and this is why the ing techniques would be considered as the substantial high salinity content that is kept in solution with water methodologies to decrease the urgent needs of water vol- should be virtually eliminated. ume from other resources and might virtually eliminate the unnecessary expenses like transferring of water from considerable distances. Although the stunning range of Conclusion research enhancement and substantial technology devel- opment has concentrated on treatment methodologies to Reinjection of water produced in the water injectivity illustrate and investigate the optimum quality of water pro- and hydraulic fracturing techniques is considered as the duced by removing unnecessary internal materials thereby, principal efficient way to reduce the urgent need for water it would be beneficial for further procedures and opera- resources dramatically. The main conclusions which are tions. These alternative elections contain water reuse in being significantly reported in this comprehensive study oil and gas operations, municipal, agricultural, and indus- are as the following statements: trial processes. The Lower amount of dissolved solids pro- duced water must be under 30,000 ppm TDS which may • Due to the fact that water scarcest in the coming decades be feasible to treat in other activities outside of oil and would be a significant concern for petroleum industries, gas operations. Higher dissolved solid produced waters providing a part volume of water which is needed for 1 3 Gas Produc on (MSCF/Day) Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Page 11 of 12 75 Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, US Gulf Coast region, 2011 oil recovery enhancement would be a significant step to (2327–6932) eliminate enormous expenses of water supplies. Engle MA, Cozzarelli IM, Smith BD (2014) USGS investigations Regarding the results of this extensive study, it is clari- of water produced during hydrocarbon reservoir development fied that hydraulic fracturing enhances the oil and gas (2327–6932) Esser BK, Beller HR, Carroll SA, Cherry JA, Gillespie J, Jackson RB, production rather than water injectivity because of Parker B (2015) Recommendations on model criteria for ground- its efficient property to open the closed and dead-end water sampling, testing, and monitoring of oil and gas develop- pores and made a breakthrough in the first period of its ment in California. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, process. Therefore, providing the supplementary water Livermore Ferrer I, Thurman EM (2015) Analysis of hydraulic fracturing addi- for this operational performance is a significant con- tives by LC/Q-TOF-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 407(21):6417–6428 cern and reinjection of produced water on the surface Fischer G, Hizsnyik E, Tramberend S, van Velthuizen H (2017) Policy would be a considerable assessment. support for sustainable development: scarcity, abundance and Although both technologies for water treatment play a alternative uses of land and water resources Freyman M (2014) Hydraulic fracturing and water stress: water substantial role in every aspect of petroleum industries’ demand by the numbers. Ceres 85:49–50 operational performances, advanced treatment which is Gallegos TJ, Varela BA, Haines SS, Engle MA (2015) Hydrau- metamorphically called “the second level”; in respect lic fracturing water use variability in the United States and of the way, it would be ensured that most of the non- potential environmental implications. Water Resour Res 51(7):5839–5845 dissolved parameters on the water produced are removed Glassman D, Wucker M, Isaacman T, Champilou C (2011) The prior to the dissolved solids treatment process. water-energy nexus. Adding Water to the Energy Agenda, A The feasibility of produced water reuse is dependent on World Policy Paper, EBG Capital, Environmental Investments three primary factors: quantity, duration, and quality of Holt T, Lindeberg E, Wessel-Berg D (2009) EOR and CO2 dis- posal—Economic and capacity potential in the North Sea. produced water generated. Energy Procedia 1(1):4159–4166 Horner R, Harto C, Jackson R, Lowry ER, Brandt A, Yeskoo T, Clark C (2016) Water use and management in the Bakken shale oil Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Crea- play in North Dakota. Environ Sci Technol 50(6):3275–3282 tive Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creat iveco Jin L, Sorensen JA, Hawthorne SB, Smith SA, Pekot LJ, Bosshart mmons.or g/licenses/b y/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribu- NW, Gorecki CD (2017) Improving oil recovery by use of car- tion, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate bon dioxide in the bakken unconventional system: a laboratory credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the investigation. SPE Reservoir Eval Eng 20(03):602–612 Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Kharaka YK, Gunter WD, Aggarwal PK, Perkins EH, DeBraal JD (1988) SOLMINEQ. 88: a computer program for geochemi- cal modeling of water-rock interactions. US geological survey water-resources investigation report, 88, 4227 Kondash A, Vengosh A (2015) Water footprint of hydraulic fractur- References ing. Environ Sci Technol Lett 2(10):276–280 Mantell ME (2011) Produced water reuse and recycling challenges Al Dabaj AA, Lazim SA, Al-Sallami OA (2018) Comparison between and opportunities across major shale plays. Paper presented at ESP and gas lift in Buzurgan oil field/Iraq. J Eng 24(1):83–96 the USEPA technical workshops for the hydraulic fracturing Arnell NW, Lloyd-Hughes B (2014) The global-scale impacts of cli- study mate change on water resources and flooding under new climate Mitra S (2004) Sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry, and socio-economic scenarios. Clim Change 122(1–2):127–140 vol 237. John Wiley, Hoboken Chen H, Carter KE (2016) Water usage for natural gas production Nicot J-P, Scanlon BR (2012) Water use for shale-gas production in through hydraulic fracturing in the United States from 2008 to Texas. US Environ Sci Technol 46(6):3580–3586 2014. J Environ Manag 170:152–159 Nicot J-P, Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Costley RA (2014) Source and fate Clark C, Veil J (2009) Produced water volumes and management prac- of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett shale: a historical tices in the United States. https ://doi.org/10.2172/10073 97 perspective. Environ Sci Technol 48(4):2464–2471 Davarpanah A, Nassabeh M (2017a) Optimization of drilling param- Oetjen K, Giddings CGS, McLaughlin M, Nell M, Blotevogel J, Hel- eters by analysis of formation strength properties with using bling DE, Higgins CP (2017) Emerging analytical methods for mechanical specific energy. In: Bulgarian Chemical Communi - the characterization and quantification of organic contaminants cations. Special Issue J. pp 364–375 in flowback and produced water. Trends Environ Anal Chem Davarpanah A, Nassabeh MM (2017b) Recommendations for optimiz- 15:12–23. https ://doi.org/10.1016/j.teac.2017.07.002 ing the efficiency of polymer flooding techniques in production Oetjen K, Chan KE, Gulmark K, Christensen JH, Blotevogel J, Borch operation of an oilfield. Electron J Biol 13(3):210–213 T, Higgins CP (2018) Temporal characterization and statisti- Davarpanah A, Mirshekari B, Behbahani TJ, Hemmati M (2018) Inte- cal analysis of flowback and produced waters and their poten- grated production logging tools approach for convenient experi- tial for reuse. Sci Total Environ 619–620:654–664. https ://doi. mental individual layer permeability measurements in a multi- org/10.1016/j.scito tenv.2017.11.078 layered fractured reservoir. J Pet Explor Prod Technol. https://doi. Orem W, Tatu C, Varonka M, Lerch H, Bates A, Engle M, McIntosh J org/10.1007/s1320 2-017-0422-3 (2014) Organic substances in produced and formation water from Dubiel RF, Pitman JK, Pearson ON, Pearson K, Kinney SA, Lewan unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale. Int J Coal MD et al (2012) Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources Geol 126:20–31 in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper 1 3 75 Page 12 of 12 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:75 Pedro-Monzonís M, Solera A, Ferrer J, Estrela T, Paredes-Arquiola J Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Nicot JP (2014b) Will water scarcity in semi- (2015) A review of water scarcity and drought indexes in water arid regions limit hydraulic fracturing of shale plays? Environ resources planning and management. J Hydrol 527:482–493 Res Lett 9(12):124011 Rabbani E, Davarpanah A, Memariani M (2018) An experimental Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Nicot J-P (2015) Response to comment on study of acidizing operation performances on the wellbore pro- “comparison of water use for hydraulic fracturing for unconven- ductivity index enhancement. J Pet Explor Prod Technol. https :// tional oil and gas versus conventional oil”. Environ Sci Technol doi.org/10.1007/s1320 2-018-0441-8 49(10):6360–6361 Rodriguez-Aller M, Cusumano A, Alain B, Guillarme D, Fekete S Thacker JB et al (2015) Chemical analysis of wastewater from uncon- (2016) Importance of vial shape and type on the reproducibility ventional drilling operations. Water 7(4):1568–1579. https ://doi. of size exclusion chromatography measurement of monoclonal org/10.3390/w7041 568 antibodies. J Chromatogr B 1032:131–138 Thurman EM, Ferrer I, Rosenblum J, Linden K, Ryan JN (2017) Identi- Rowan EL, Engle MA, Kraemer TF, Schroeder KT, Hammack RW, fication of polypropylene glycols and polyethylene glycol carbox- Doughten MW (2015) Geochemical and isotopic evolution of ylates in flowback and produced water from hydraulic fracturing. water produced from Middle Devonian Marcellus shale gas wells, J Hazard Mater 323:11–17 Appalachian basin Pennsylvania. AAPG Bull 99(2):181–206 Wilson JM, VanBriesen JM (2012) Oil and gas produced water man- Scanlon BR, Duncan I, Reedy RC (2013a) Drought and the water– agement and surface drinking water sources in Pennsylvania. energy nexus in Texas. Environ Res Lett 8(4):045033 Environ Pract 14(4):288–300 Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Duncan I, Mullican WF, Young M (2013b) Controls on water use for thermoelectric generation: case study Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to Texas. US Environ Sci Technol 47(19):11326–11334 jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Nicot J-P (2014a) Comparison of water use for hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas versus conven- tional oil. Environ Sci Technol 48(20):12386–12393 1 3

Journal

Applied Water ScienceSpringer Journals

Published: May 7, 2018

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off