J. Membrane Biol. 169, 1–12 (1999) The Journal of Membrane Biology © Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1999 Topical Review 1,2 1,2 C. Taha , A. Klip Programme in Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 Canada Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 Canada Received: 5 November 1998/Revised: 4 February 1999 Introduction the b-subunit is a transmembrane peptide (Van Ob- berghen et al., 1981). The intracellular portion of the Insulin mediates a wide spectrum of biological responses b-subunit contains the insulin-regulated tyrosine protein including stimulation of glucose uptake, glycogen, lipid kinase (Kasuga et al., 1983). Insulin binding activates and protein synthesis, antilipolysis, activation of tran- the tyrosine kinase leading to autophosphorylation of ty- scription of specific genes, and modulation of cellular rosine residues in several regions of the intracellular growth and differentiation. Since the discovery of insu- b-subunit and the tyrosine phosphorylation of the IRS- lin 77 years ago, great progress has been made in under- proteins. The reader is referred to an in-depth review on standing the diverse signaling pathways that emanate the structure of the insulin receptor (White, 1997). from the insulin receptor itself to generate the pleiotropic
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: May 1, 1999
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