Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 11, pp. 1895−1902.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © S.S. Stavitskaya, N.V. Sych, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 11, pp. 1761−1769.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
The Inﬂ uence of Certain Modifying Additives
on Structure, Sorption, and Catalytic Properties
of Activated Carbons
S. S. Stavitskaya and N. V. Sych
Institute of Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
Received December 30, 2009
Abstract—A brief review of the latest studies is given and the effect exerted by N, O, S, and P heteroatoms,
properties of starting material, type and amount of a modiﬁ er, and treatment conditions on the structure, sorption,
and catalytic properties of activated carbons synthesized from cheap wastes of chemical and food industries was
determined. The performed modiﬁ cation of carbon sorbents made it possible to control their properties and obtain
new technically important materials with given characteristics.
Use of natural and synthetic precursors containing
О, S, N, and P heteroatoms or reagents for chemical
activation or oxidation (for example, H
preparing activated carbons (ACs) automatically implies
the passage of a certain number of heteroatoms into the
ﬁ nal carbon material (CM) in the course of synthesis. In
this case, depending on the particular chemical nature
of the surface of AC, it may be assumed that there are
different procedures for incorporation of these atoms
into a carbon matrix and the surface functional groups
(SFGs) of ACs.
It should be noted that the question of the nature of
heteroatoms in CM remains open, as it is still assumed
that the heteroatoms incorporated into the carbon matrix
have the same properties as in conventional heterocycilc
compounds and properties of the heteroatoms in the
SFGs are similar to those of similar groups of organic
compounds (aromatic heterocycles or related aliphatic
compounds). In addition, the semiconductor nature
of CMs was not taken into account. In other words,
in most cases, it was not taken into account that ACs
are solids with a complex of the physicochemical and
Though numerous publications are available [1–9],
the mechanisms of the inﬂ uence of heteroatoms on the
donor-acceptor properties, catalytic behavior, and elec-
trochemical features [3, 10, 11] are not fully understood
, the obtained results are often contradictory, and
there is no common approach that enables from the sin-
gle point of view to explain the effect of various hetero-
atoms on, for example, the catalytic activity of carbons
in redox reactions.
A publication  is in fact the ﬁ rst attempt to
explain from the uniﬁ ed point of view the mechanism
of the inﬂ uence of heteroatoms on the CM chemistry.
A signiﬁ cant difference from other notions developed
in the literature is that in  chemical properties of
single molecular formations are considered in detail
in the form of N-, O-, B-, Р-containing carbon clusters
characterized by various energy parameters instead of
single heteroatoms in the form of various functional
Frequently, the sorption properties of ACs are
affected by the presence in their structure of atoms of
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and
other elements because of their electronegativities
different from that of carbon. In particular, nitrogen-
containing carbons, which have long been manufactured
and studied are of considerable interest [6, 8, 10, 13].