The impact of Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast in winemaking
Received: 18 December 2017 /Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 /Published online: 28 February 2018
Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
Commercial Saccharomyces strains are usually inoculated to ferment alcoholic beverages due to their ability to convert all
fermentable sugars into ethanol. However, modern trends in winemaking have turned toward less known, non-Saccharomyces
yeast species. These species perform the first stages of natural spontaneous fermentation and play important roles in wine variety.
New alcoholic fermentation trends have begun to consider objectives other than alcohol production to improve flavor diversity.
This review explores the influence of the most used and commercialized non-Saccharomyces yeast, Torulaspora delbrueckii,on
fermentation quality parameters, such as ethanol, glycerol, volatile acidity, volatile profile, succinic acid, mannoproteins, poly-
saccharides, color, anthocyanins, amino acids, and sensory perception.
Keywords Torulaspora delbrueckii
In recent years, microbiology researchers have begun paying
special attention to using non-Saccharomyces yeasts to solve
modern challenges in winemaking, with a main goal of im-
proving wine quality or reducing possible food safety prob-
lems (Jolly et al. 2014; Padilla et al. 2016; Varela 2016;
Petruzzi et al. 2017). These non-Saccharomyces yeasts in-
clude Kloeckera apiculata, Hanseniaspora uvarum,
Hanseniaspora vineae, Candida zemplinina, Candida
pulcherrima (Jolly et al. 2003a), Candida stellata (Jolly
et al. 2003b), Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Domizio et al.
2017), Hansenula anomala, Metschnikowia pulcherrima
(Varela et al. 2016), Lachancea thermotolerans (Benito et al.
2016a), and Kazachstania aerobia (Whitener et al. 2017).
Among the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, the best studied, com-
mercialized, and utilized at the industrial level is Torulasp ora
delbrueckii (Belda et al. 2017).
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in fermentation pro-
cesses has been reported to improve quality parameters such
as ethanol reduction (Contreras et al. 2014), glycerol content
(Belda et al. 2015), aromatic complexity (Belda et al. 2017),
acidity(Balikcietal.2016), anthocyanin content (Benito et al.
2017), polysaccharides, and mannoproteins (Domizio et al.
2017). Harmful compounds that influence food safety, such
as biogenic amines or ethyl carbamate, can also be reduced by
using some non-Saccharomyces species (Benito et al. 2015a).
However, the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an indus-
trial scale is complex and differs from classic Saccharomyces
cerevisiae use. The main problem in industrial fermentation
performance is that most non-Saccharomyces possess low to
moderate alcoholic fermentation abilities and thus cannot ac-
complish a proper regular fermentation process in high-
alcohol beverages such as wine. Consequently, most non-
Saccharomyces yeasts must be combined with a more power-
ful fermenter, such as S. ce
scale. Among the possible approaches, sequential fermenta-
tion appears to be the most successful, as it prolongs the oe-
nological potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts without pos-
sible inhibitory effects by the Saccharomyces genus over the
first days of alcoholic fermentation.
Interestingly, at the beginning of industrial microbiology
development, most wild non-Saccharomyces yeasts were con-
sidered spoilage microorganisms (Fleet 2006). This belief has
changed in recent years as specific non-Saccharomyces spe-
cies have been shown to improve some quality parameters
(Jolly et al. 2014; Varela 2016). Among them, Torula spora
delbrueckii was specifically reported as a spoilage yeast in soft
drinks (Kurtzman 2011), where its presence was easily
* Santiago Benito
Department of Chemistry and Food Technology, Polytechnic
University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria S/N,
28040 Madrid, Spain
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2018) 102:3081–3094