The Impact of Private Precautions on Home Burglary
and Robbery in Brazil
Cristiano Aguiar de Oliveira
Published online: 30 September 2016
Ó Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016
This study evaluates the effects of precaution technologies (i.e., window bars,
extra locks, alarms and electric fences, CCTV, private security, dogs and combinations of
these tools) on household burglary and robbery in Brazil.
Using a sample of 121,042 unique households from the Brazilian National
Household Sample Survey for 2009, this study estimates a Recursive Bivariate Probit to
obtain the average treatment effect of these precaution technologies in the likelihood of
home burglary and robbery victimization.
This study demonstrates that technology does not reduce home burglaries, but
certain combinations of technologies may reduce home robberies. The combination of
electric fences and alarms with private security reduces the likelihood of home robbery by
9.5 %, and when combined with a dog, these technologies reduce the likelihood of home
robbery by 86 %.
No precaution technology is able to prevent crimes when employed inde-
pendently. Occupancy combined with a set of technologies can reduce the expected vic-
timization in crimes against property.
Keywords Victimization Á Precaution technologies Á Recursive bivariate probit
JEL classiﬁcation K42 Á C21 Á C25
& Cristiano Aguiar de Oliveira
Department of Economics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Italia Avenue, km 8, Rio Grande,
J Quant Criminol (2018) 34:111–137