ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2009, Vol. 40, No. 7, pp. 466–470. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
The study of trends in natural regeneration and
development of virgin or other structurally similar for
ests almost unaffected by human activities is a long
standing and interesting problem in forest ecology
(Tkachenko, 1911; Weaver and Clements, 1929;
Müller, 1929; Leibundgut, 1959, 1993; Smaglyuk,
1969; Whittaker, 1975; Bormann and Likens, 1979;
Korpel, 1982; Chistyakova and Parpan, 1991). Knowl
edge of trends in the dynamics of undisturbed, “proto
typal” forest ecosystems provides the possibility of
predicting changes in their structure and functions
under the influence of natural and anthropogenic fac
tors. On the same ecological basis, it is also possible to
develop the strategy of their use that would be compat
ible with natural ecosystem dynamics, thereby provid
ing for the least possible energy expenditures and dam
age to nature (Shvarts, 1974).
The European beech (
L.) is a major
forestforming species in Europe. However, small
areas of native forests (undisturbed by tree harvesting,
reforestation, or recreational activities) dominated by
this species have survived only in hardly accessible
mountain habitats. One of them is the Carpathian
Biosphere Reserve in Ukraine.
Many schemes of agerelated regeneration dynam
ics and centennial dynamics of beech and dark conifer
forests in Europe have been proposed to date (Siren,
1955; Kazimirov, 1971; Mayer, 1984; Korpel, 1982;
Dyrenkov, 1984). To reveal trends in forest develop
ment, their authors rely on traditional taxonometric
parameters such as stand age, normality, ad productiv
ity. However, characterizing specific features of stand
structure, these parameters insufficiently reflect the
role of the key ecological factors that “trigger” and
“program” the development of cenopopulation of the
edificator species, determining the time and place,
rate and rhythm of the cycles of its decline, regenera
tion, and subsequent ecosystem dynamics.
In this paper, we present a brief review and empiri
caltheoretical generalization (on a populationeco
logical basis) of the results of our studies on the struc
ture, regeneration, and trends in the dynamics of
native monodominant beach forests (primeval forests)
of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains.
OBJECTS AND METHODS
We studied the types of native climax beech
forests prevailing in the UgolskoShyrokoluzhansky
forest massif of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve.
This massif, which extends over southwestern slopes of
the Ukrainian Carpathians, is one of Europexs largest
virgin forests survived to date (over 12000 ha).
In particular, unevenaged stands (from a juvenile age
to 300–350 years, with 70–80% trees being older than
140–160 years) dominated by beech (95%) grow on
the southern slopes of Mount Menchul and the Polon
ina Range at elevations of 400 to 1200 m a.s.l. The pre
vailing forest type is mesic beech forest, or D
ing to Pogrebnyak’s (1955) classification.
Concept and methodological approaches.
ing from the fundamental idea of the cyclicity of helio
physical and geophysical processes, it is logical to pos
tulate cyclicity of the climate and local ecological
disasters (Sannikov, 1991). Consequently, the pro
cesses of decline, regeneration, growth, and dynamics
The Hypothesis of the Pulsed Dynamics
of Virgin Beech Forests
V. I. Parpan
, S. N. Sannikov
, and T. V. Parpan
Ukrainian Research Institute of Mountain Forestry,
ul. Grushevskogo 31, IvanoFrankovsk, 76000 Ukraine
Botanical Garden, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Vos’mogo Marta 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russia
Received July 21, 2008
—As a result of studies in natural beech forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians and review of published
data, a scheme of their asynchronous mosaic decline, natural regeneration, agerelated regeneration dynam
ics, and centennial dynamics has been formulated on a populationecological basis.
: the Carpathians, European beech, virgin forest, cenopopulation, windthrow, chorocenotic ele
ment, environmental factors, regeneration, dynamics.