IntJ PolitCult Soc https://doi.org/10.1007/s10767-018-9290-1 The Hijab and Work: Female Entrepreneurship in Response to Islamophobia Hanane Karimi Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018 Abstract This article focuses on the emerging phenomenon of Muslim women’sentrepre- neurial networks in France. It seeks to illustrate a causal relationship between a sociopolitical context where state secularism (laïcité) has been abusively interpreted as a blank check to enforce religious neutrality in France, which has therefore inadvertently encouraged these entrepreneurial networks. As such, this article positions these networks as form of empower- ment to overcome the sense of humiliation, isolation, and exclusion produced by the current context of state secularism in France, rather than solely an illustration of an independent entrepreneurial spirit. The labor market appears as a field in which social and political practices regulating religious visibility have been enacted within a context of religious tensions in French society rising since the late 1980s (Baubérot 2000). This occurs between the pre- eminence of individual freedoms in secularism and the anticlerical tendencies that can be inferred from recent decisions made by French courts. Based on observations of participants in two women’s entrepreneurship networks made as part of my doctoral research on the impact
"International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society" – Springer Journals
Published: May 31, 2018
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