The geochemical and petrological characteristics of prenatal caldera volcano: a case of thenewly formed small dacitic caldera, Hijiori, Northeast Japan

The geochemical and petrological characteristics of prenatal caldera volcano: a case of thenewly... Evaluating the magma depth and its physical properties is critical to conduct a better geophysical assessment of magma chambers of caldera volcanoes that may potentially cause future volcanic hazards. To understand pre-eruptive conditions of a magma chamber before its first appearance at the surface, this paper describes the case of Hijiori caldera volcano in northeastern Japan, which emerged approximately 12,000 years ago at a place where no volcano ever existed. We estimated the depth, density, bulk modulus, vesicularity, crystal content, and bulk H $$_2$$ 2 O content of the magma chamber using petrographic interpretations, bulk and microchemical compositions, and thermodynamic calculations. The chemical mass balance calculations and thermodynamic modeling of the erupted magmas indicate that the upper portion of the Hijiori magmatic plumbing system was located at depths between 2 and 4 km, and had the following characteristics: (1) pre-eruptive temperature: about 780 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C; (2) bulk magma composition: 66 ± 1.5 wt% SiO $$_{2}$$ 2 ; (3) bulk magmatic H $$_2$$ 2 O: approximately 2.5 wt%, and variable characteristics that depend on depth; (4) crystal content: $$\le$$ ≤ 57 vol%; (5) bulk modulus of magma: 0.1–0.8 GPa; (6) magma density: 1.8–2.3 g/cm3; and (7) amount of excess magmatic H $$_2$$ 2 O: 11–32 vol% or 48–81 mol%. The range of melt water contents found in quartz-hosted melt inclusions (2–9 wt%) suggests the range of depth phenocrysts growth to be wide (2 $$\sim$$ ∼ 13 km). Our data suggest the presence of a vertically elongated magma chamber whose top is nearly solidified but highly vesiculated; this chamber has probably grown and re-mobilized by repeated injections of a small amount of hot dacitic magma originated from the depth. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology Springer Journals

The geochemical and petrological characteristics of prenatal caldera volcano: a case of thenewly formed small dacitic caldera, Hijiori, Northeast Japan

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Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s)
Subject
Earth Sciences; Geology; Mineral Resources; Mineralogy
ISSN
0010-7999
eISSN
1432-0967
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00410-017-1391-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Evaluating the magma depth and its physical properties is critical to conduct a better geophysical assessment of magma chambers of caldera volcanoes that may potentially cause future volcanic hazards. To understand pre-eruptive conditions of a magma chamber before its first appearance at the surface, this paper describes the case of Hijiori caldera volcano in northeastern Japan, which emerged approximately 12,000 years ago at a place where no volcano ever existed. We estimated the depth, density, bulk modulus, vesicularity, crystal content, and bulk H $$_2$$ 2 O content of the magma chamber using petrographic interpretations, bulk and microchemical compositions, and thermodynamic calculations. The chemical mass balance calculations and thermodynamic modeling of the erupted magmas indicate that the upper portion of the Hijiori magmatic plumbing system was located at depths between 2 and 4 km, and had the following characteristics: (1) pre-eruptive temperature: about 780 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C; (2) bulk magma composition: 66 ± 1.5 wt% SiO $$_{2}$$ 2 ; (3) bulk magmatic H $$_2$$ 2 O: approximately 2.5 wt%, and variable characteristics that depend on depth; (4) crystal content: $$\le$$ ≤ 57 vol%; (5) bulk modulus of magma: 0.1–0.8 GPa; (6) magma density: 1.8–2.3 g/cm3; and (7) amount of excess magmatic H $$_2$$ 2 O: 11–32 vol% or 48–81 mol%. The range of melt water contents found in quartz-hosted melt inclusions (2–9 wt%) suggests the range of depth phenocrysts growth to be wide (2 $$\sim$$ ∼ 13 km). Our data suggest the presence of a vertically elongated magma chamber whose top is nearly solidified but highly vesiculated; this chamber has probably grown and re-mobilized by repeated injections of a small amount of hot dacitic magma originated from the depth.

Journal

Contributions to Mineralogy and PetrologySpringer Journals

Published: Aug 18, 2017

References

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