The periodic formation of vortex rings in the developing region of a round jet subjected to high-amplitude acoustic forcing is investigated with High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry. Harmonic velocity oscillations ranging from 20 to 120% of the mean exit velocity of the jet was achieved at several forcing frequencies determined by the acoustic response of the system. The time-resolved history of the formation process and circulation of the vortex rings are evaluated as a function of the forcing conditions. Overall, high-amplitude forcing causes the shear layers of the jet to breakup into a train of large-scale vortex rings, which share many of the features of starting jets. Features of the jet breakup such as the roll-up location and vortex size were found to be both amplitude and frequency dependent. A limiting time-scale of t/T ≈ 0.33 based on the normalized forcing period was found to restrict the growth of a vortex ring in terms of its circulation for any given arrangement of jet forcing conditions. In sinusoidally forced jets, this time-scale corresponds to a kinematic constraint where the translational velocity of the vortex ring exceeds the shear layer velocity that imposes pinch-off. This kinematic constraint results from the change in sign in the jet acceleration between t = 0 and t = 0.33T. However, some vortex rings were observed to pinch-off before t = 0.33T suggesting that they had acquired their maximum circulation. By invoking the slug model approximations and defining the slug parameters based on the experimentally obtained time- and length-scales, an analytical model based on the slug and ring energies revealed that the formation number for a sinusoidally forced jet is L/D ≈ 4 in agreement with the results of Gharib et al. (J Fluid Mech 360:121–140, 1998).
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: May 12, 2011
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