Debris flows are one of the most dangerous and common hydrological phenomena in mountainous regions. They are extremely various in their type and character, but they are always mountain flows consisting of a mixture of water and loose-fragmental debris. The problem of calculation and forecasting the mudflows still remains intractable. There are several reasons for that: Firstly, the representatives of the whole spectrum of the Earth Sciences (Hydrology, Geology, Geomorphology, Geography, Mechanics, Rheology) deal with this problem from their point of view. Secondly, systematic monitoring of passing debris flows are currently held only in several countries only (USA, Canada, Austria, Switzerland, Japan, China), because they require significant funding. Thirdly, the calculation methods, having been accepted for the present time, give certain errors. In this article, the results of the artificially triggered debris flow experiments conducted in 1972–1976 in the Chemolgan river basin, organized by the Kazakh Research Hydrometeorological Institute are described. These were the first full-scale experiments with the detailed recording of the numerous debris flows characteristics ever conducted. The movie is attached as supplementary material to the Editorial of the Special Issue. The information about the used measurement equipment, the obtained characteristics of debris flows, the debris flow classification accepted as a result of the experiments is given. Conducting such experiments in nature allowed us to assess various aspects of the formation of these natural phenomena and made it possible to build the mathematical models of the debris flow processes.
Natural Hazards – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 24, 2017
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