Psychiatric Quarterly [psaq] ph259-psaq-482363 June 3, 2004 10:27 Style ﬁle version June 4th, 2002
Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 3, Fall 2004 (
THE EVOLUTION OF THE THERAPEUTIC
Stuart Whiteley, FRCPsych
The creation of Therapeutic Communities in the Military Hospitals of the UK
for the treatment of psychological casualties of war during the Second World
War is described. The personnel and the methods utilised are discussed and
the lessons learned are summarised. It is argued that this was not an entirely
new phenomenon. The author describes previous usage of similar methods in
residential communities for disadvantaged or delinquent youth in the period
between the two world wars and, prior to this, the eighteenth century “era of
moral treatment” in mental hospitals in the UK and USA.
KEY WORDS: therapeutic community; moral treatment; psychiatric history.
SOME ANTECEDENTS OF THE THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITY
Moral Treatment of the Mentally Ill
In France, in 1792, Phillipe Pinel, Superintendent of the Bic
ere Asylums in Paris is reported to have struck the chains off
some of the inmates of these places and set them free and is commonly
regarded as a pioneer of a more humanitarian treatment of the insane.
Address correspondence to Dr. Stuart Whiteley, Wheelwrights Cottage, Wheelers Lane,
Brockham, Surrey RH3 7LA, United Kingdom; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2004 Human Sciences Press, Inc.