Journal of Iberian Geology (2018) 44:257–271
The epiclastic barrier‑island system of the Early‒Middle Jurassic
in eastern Spain
J. E. Cortés
· J. J. Gómez
Received: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published online: 16 April 2018
© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018
Background During the Early-Middle Jurassic, several mainly volcaniclastic submarine eruptions, which followed well
marked lineaments, took place in the Iberian Ranges of eastern Spain. Some of these volcanoes were occasionally emerged
during sea-level lowstand periods.
Purposes In this work we aim to present the signs indicating that a huge volcanic pile, located in the Sierra de Javalambre
(Teruel, Spain), could have been subjected to emersion, reworking and colonization by ﬂora. We also intend to date the
volcanism and to delimit the most likely period of time when emersion, reworking and colonization were produced.
Methods The research work was supported by geological mapping, as well as by preparing stratigraphic sections and their
palaeontological sampling. Biostratigraphical dating was achieved though taxonimical determination of ammonites, bra-
chiopods, and data from pre-existing palynological studies.
Results As a result of the shallow marine and subaerial partial erosion of the volcanic ediﬁce, epiclastic bodies, some of
which show large scale cross-bedding and bar geometry, were generated. These bedforms are interpreted as sandwaves
constituting a barrier-island system protecting a lagoon on which low-energy sediments, rich in plant remains, together with
washover fan facies were deposited.
Conclusions An Early Toarcian, Serpentinum Chronozone age for the volcanism is indicated by the brachiopod and ammonite
content of infra- and inter-volcanic sediments. However, burial of the volcanic mound by the carbonates of the surrounding
platforms ended in the Late Aalenian Bradfordensis Chronozone, about 10 million years after the eruption. This delay was
partly due to a signiﬁcant regional sedimentary gap marked by the hiatus of the Late Toarcian (from the Late Variabilis Chro-
nozone) to the Late Aalenian (Bradfordensis-Concavum chronozones). The emersion of the volcanic pile, the colonization of
the emerged islands by continental vegetation and the instauration of the epiclastic barrier-island system occurred between
part of the Aalenian Murchisonae and part of the Bradfordensis chronozones. The concurrence of the porous epiclastic
lithofacies together with the organic-rich lagoonal sediments could represent an analogue model of an untypical hydrocarbon
system located in neritic position, which could probably be applied in other areas of extensive emerged submarine volcanoes
present in the geological record.
Keywords Barrier islands · Volcanism · Epiclastic deposits · Ammonites · Brachiopods · Jurassic · Iberian Range
Antecedentes Durante el Jurásico Inferior y Medio tuvieron lugar varias erupciones submarinas, principalmente de tipo
volcanoclástico, que se ordenaron siguiendo alineamientos bien deﬁnidos en la Cordillera Ibérica del este de España. Algunos
de estos volcanes emergieron localmente durante periodos de lowstand del nivel del mar.
Objetivos En este trabajo presentamos los indicios de que un enorme apilamiento de material volcánico, localizado en la
Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, España), podría haber emergido y haber sido retrabajado y colonizado por ﬂora de hábitat ter-
restre. También intentamos datar el vulcanismo y tratar de delimitar el periodo de tiempo más probable en el que se produjo
la emersión, el retrabajamiento y la colonización.
Extended author information available on the last page of the article