The entrainment of air by water jet impinging on a free surface

The entrainment of air by water jet impinging on a free surface High-speed cine and video photographs were used to capture the flow patterns of a column of water jet impinging into a pool of water. The impact results in air entrainment into water in the form of a void with no mixing between the water in the jet and the surrounding water. Conservation of fluid momentum shows that the rate of increase of the height of the air void depends on the drag coefficient of the jet front. By neglecting the frictional losses, the application of energy conservation yields an expression that relates the maximum height of the air void with the properties of the water jet. Experiments in Fluids Springer Journals

The entrainment of air by water jet impinging on a free surface

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