ISSN 1063-0740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2016, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 582–590. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © G.S. Gavrilova, L.N. Kim, 2016, published in Izvestiya TINRO.
The Efficiency of Yesso Scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis)
Aquaculture in Ussuri Bay (Sea of Japan)
G. S. Gavrilova* and L. N. Kim
Pacific Research Fisheries Center , ul. Shevchenko 4, Vladivostok, 690091 Russia
Received November 16, 2015
Abstract—Data on cultivation of the Yesso scallop, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, in Ussuri Bay are summarized.
The sea-based farms that are established in the shallow waters at depths of 2–18 m differ in the area occupied
by their facilities and the hydrodynamic characteristics. A farm with a complex structure (collectors, cages,
and bottom cultures) operates in the semi-enclosed Sukhodol Bay. In the other two bays, mostly bottom facil-
ities for ranching scallop and sea cucumber are used. The local scallop broodstocks were formed by introduc-
ing juveniles from Posyet Bay. As a result, at least 20 million scallop spat were collected in these three bays
from 2000 to 2014. The total yield of market-size scallops was approximately 216 tons, of which over 111 t were
obtained in Sukhodol Bay, 70 t in Ilmovaya Bay, and 35 t in Malye Kushi Bay. Analysis showed that the
potential for the development of this type of aquaculture in the region was limited. The mean long-term value
of the spat density was not higher than 200 spat per collector and did not increase throughout the period of
operation of the farms. Thus, farmers had to increase the number of collectors to obtain the required quantity
of scallop seed. Some years were unfavorable for harvesting juvenile scallop at all of the farms along the east-
ern coast of Ussuri Bay. The environmental conditions in these waters are not optimal for Yesso scallop cul-
tivation by the extensive method.
Keywords: Ussuri Bay, spat collection, culture, collector, scallop cultivation
The Yesso scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis has been
cultivated in coastal waters of Primorsky Krai since the
middle 1970s; it is a major segment of invertebrate
aquaculture in the region. In the first decade of the
current century, the annual production of market-size
scallops at all farms of the region varied from 300 to
2000 t with a maximum harvest of 1000 t. According to
the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Biological
Resources of the Administration of Primorsky krai, a
total of 27 million juvenile scallops were collected and
restocked at the farms of the region in 2014–2015; the
level of aquaculture products that were sold reached
1100 t .
The seed for growing of market-size scallops in Pri-
morsky Krai is obtained by an extensive method,
which consists in spat collection in the wild using arti-
ficial collectors. Due to the year-to-year variability in
its abundance, the production of market-size scallops
is subject to significant changes. In addition, mean
annual values of spat density on collectors vary
between various parts of the coast of Primorsky Krai.
Currently, the largest amounts of scallop spat and
market-size product are obtained in Posyet Bay [2, 3].
In the early 2000s, when development of Yesso scallop
aquaculture off the eastern coast of the Ussuri Bay had
just begun, more than a dozen entrepreneurs
attempted to master this new type of economic activ-
ity; only three to five farms continue to operate in this
The goal of this study was to summarize the data on
the current scale and prospects of Yesso scallop culti-
vation in Ussuri Bay. The specifics and problems of
commercial shellfish cultivation in one of the aquacul-
tural areas of Peter the Great Bay were analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Data on the following aquaculture farms, located
in the three smaller bays of Ussuri Bay, were used for
the analysis: Marikul’tura (Sukhodol Bay), Kolomeit-
sev (Malye Kushi Bay (local name)), and Danilova
(Ilmovaya Bay) (figure). These organizations have
collected a long-term series of observations on the
abundance of spat on collectors and the production of
market-size scallops: in Sukhodol Bay from 1999 to
2014 and in Malye Kushi and Ilmovaya bays from 2000
and 2004, respectively, to 2014. For the discussion of
the problems of market-size shellfish cultivation,
materials on other waters of Ussuri Bay for various
years were also used.