The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins on atrial oxidative stress, nitrotyrosine residues, and connexins following extracorporeal circulation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins on atrial oxidative stress,... Cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation is characterized by different degrees of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, which is often associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). We have previously shown that a novel preventive therapy based on the reinforcement of the antioxidant system using omega-3 fatty acids plus antioxidant vitamin supplementation applied to patients undergoing cardiac surgery reduces POAF occurrence. We hypothesized that oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are involved in the development of an arrhythmogenic substrate by their effect on connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) abundance and distribution pattern. Therefore, we have assessed the effect of redox status on atrial tissue in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Placebo/POAF and supplemented/POAF patients showed 276 and 170% higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and 223 and 96% higher nitrotyrosine residues levels, respectively, compared to sinus rhythm (SR). In POAF tissue, antioxidant supplementation prevented Cx40 and Cx43 lateralization on cardiomyocyte sarcolemma, keeping them at the intercalated disks. POAF samples showed Cx40 heterogeneous distribution pattern, presenting tissue areas lacking this protein (49 and 55% lower levels in placebo/POAF and supplemented/POAF groups, respectively, compared to SR). Of note, Cx45 overexpression occurred in POAF, being 211 and 167% higher in placebo/POAF and supplemented/POAF groups, respectively, compared to SR. It is concluded that treatment with omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins reduces oxidative and nitrosative stress and prevents Cx40/Cx43 lateralization in atrial tissue likely contributing to POAF prevention. However, it failed to fully prevent POAF occurrence because these compounds have no effects on the normalization of Cx40 down-regulation and Cx45 up-regulation, which may promote POAF. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Springer Journals

The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins on atrial oxidative stress, nitrotyrosine residues, and connexins following extracorporeal circulation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Medical Biochemistry; Oncology; Cardiology
ISSN
0300-8177
eISSN
1573-4919
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11010-017-3013-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation is characterized by different degrees of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, which is often associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). We have previously shown that a novel preventive therapy based on the reinforcement of the antioxidant system using omega-3 fatty acids plus antioxidant vitamin supplementation applied to patients undergoing cardiac surgery reduces POAF occurrence. We hypothesized that oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are involved in the development of an arrhythmogenic substrate by their effect on connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) abundance and distribution pattern. Therefore, we have assessed the effect of redox status on atrial tissue in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Placebo/POAF and supplemented/POAF patients showed 276 and 170% higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and 223 and 96% higher nitrotyrosine residues levels, respectively, compared to sinus rhythm (SR). In POAF tissue, antioxidant supplementation prevented Cx40 and Cx43 lateralization on cardiomyocyte sarcolemma, keeping them at the intercalated disks. POAF samples showed Cx40 heterogeneous distribution pattern, presenting tissue areas lacking this protein (49 and 55% lower levels in placebo/POAF and supplemented/POAF groups, respectively, compared to SR). Of note, Cx45 overexpression occurred in POAF, being 211 and 167% higher in placebo/POAF and supplemented/POAF groups, respectively, compared to SR. It is concluded that treatment with omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins reduces oxidative and nitrosative stress and prevents Cx40/Cx43 lateralization in atrial tissue likely contributing to POAF prevention. However, it failed to fully prevent POAF occurrence because these compounds have no effects on the normalization of Cx40 down-regulation and Cx45 up-regulation, which may promote POAF.

Journal

Molecular and Cellular BiochemistrySpringer Journals

Published: Mar 23, 2017

References

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