Journal of Pest Science (2018) 91:681–690
The eects of non‑host plant extracts on electroantennogram
responses, behavior and egg hatching of codling moth, Cydia
· Lukasz L. Stelinski
· Mark E. Whalon
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published online: 23 January 2018
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is a signiﬁcant pest of pome fruit throughout the world. Behavioral and ovicidal
activities of ﬁve non-host plant extracts (Arctium lappa, Bifora radians, Humulus lupulus, Verbascum songaricum, Xan-
thium strumarium), synthetic sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienol (codlemone), and the plant volatile lure, (2E,4Z)-
2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) were evaluated against the codling moth, C. pomonella L. Codlemone elicited the greatest
electroantennogram (EAG) response (6.2 ± 1.2 mV) of the compounds tested from male C. pomonella while pear ester
elicited 1.7 ± 0.1 mV EAG response in female moths. Codlemone attracted 34.5% of male C. pomonella in olfactometer
studies, and it was followed by the X. strumarium extract with 24.8%. There was a signiﬁcant diﬀerence between the behav-
ior of unmated and mated females. V. songaricum extract was the most active extract, attracting 25.4% of unmated females.
However, mated C. pomonella females exhibited greatest attraction to pear ester. In a wind tunnel bioassay, combining X.
strumarium with codlemone signiﬁcantly increased the response of male upwind ﬂight and source contact as compared
with codlemone alone. All plant extracts, except for V. songaricum, signiﬁcantly reduced the number of eggs laid. The plant
extracts exhibited some toxic eﬀects to eggs, and hatching rate of eggs was reduced as compared with the control. Our results
indicate that some of the plant extracts tested are potential candidates for practical use after elucidation and characterization
of active compound(s).
Keywords Codlemone · Plant extract · Pear ester · Arctium lappa · Bifora radians · Humulus lupulus · Verbascum
songaricum · Xanthium strumarium
New biologically active compounds are needed to
improve the control of codling moth and discovery of
non-host plant extracts holds potential.
The tested plant extracts had both behavioral and toxic
eﬀects on codling moth eggs, males, and females.
Some of the tested plant extracts could be further devel-
oped as management tools for codling moth.
The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidop-
tera: Tortricidae), is a cosmopolitan pest of deciduous
fruits and causes heavy damage on apple (Malus domestica
Borkh) and pear (Pyrus communis L.) in many parts of the
world (Vickers and Rothschild 1991; Beers et al. 1993).
The management of this pest heavily relies on the appli-
cation of insecticides, ranging from organophosphates
(OPs) to synthetic pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and insect
growth regulators (IGRs) (Croft and Reidl 1992; Dunley
and Welter 2000; Reuveny and Cohen 2004; Mota-Sanchez
Communicated by M. B. Isman.
* Ayhan Gökçe
Plant Production and Technologies, Niğde Omer Halisdemir
University, Niğde, Turkey
Entomology and Nematology Department, Citrus Research
and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment
Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL, USA
Department of Entomology, B-11 Center for Integrated Plant
Systems, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA