ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2009, Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 336–341. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Published in Russian in Ekologiya, 2009, No. 5, pp. 356–362.
An unavoidable collision of view about the coexist
ence of functionally similar species in communities
was especially marked, which the guild concept was
established (Root, 1967). The well known examples of
guild cohesion in the multidimensional environment
(Gilyarov, 2007) undermine authority of universality
of the key evolutionary and ecological concepts of
niche and competition (Bell, 2000; Hubbell, 2005),
but neutrality while is considered as extreme interac
tion type (Chesson, 2000; Adler et al., 2007). Niche
segregation at least along an axis unavoidably detects
even coexistent species as consumers of different sec
tors of even inseparable resource. It stands to reason
that any segregation excludes the question of competi
tion. Therefore only one niche parameter is important
in terms of quantitative ecology in field of trophic
guilds. This is amount of common and spatiotempo
ral united resource.
Of the greatest interest is correlation between
structure of ruminant (
) guilds and mass
and energy content of trophic resource, which depen
dent on vegetation structure. It is one of methods of
dealing an old but still topical Hutchinson’s problem
(Hutchinson, 1959) of species structure of communi
ties (McGill et al., 2007) and considerably improves
functional patterns of consumerresource system.
South Far East under study is a part of range of six
ruminant species: musk deer
Siberian roe deer
L., red deer
L., sika deer
The article was translated by the author.
Temm., and Amur goral
MilneEdwards (Danilkin, 1999, 2005). The
ranges are overlapped. In fact, only moose + goral and
moose + sika deer are impossible owing to distribution
patterns. There are five dominant types of vegetation,
which may be parameterized according to ruminant
species diets (Sheremet’ev, Prokopenko, 2005).
The paper deals with pattern of interrelation
between the structure of ruminant guilds and quantita
tive food parameters of vegetation of the habitats.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
General approach consists in interpreting of rank
ing results. Two systems of ruminant ranking, by abun
dance of the forage species from diet and by abun
dance of ruminant species in a community and vegeta
tionuse strategy, were compared. The vegetationuse
strategy of the ruminants arises from territoryuse
mode and the diet diversity. Relative settled rather
than nomadic way of life corresponds to time mini
mizing, thus providing species with some advantage
(Bergman et al., 2001). The diet diversity improves the
effectiveness of grazing by the ruminant species
(Homolka, 1996), but ruminants with narrower spe
cialized diet may have an advantage, where their for
age plants prevail.
The abundance of ruminant species is calculated
through the population density data. The parameter is
expressed as total food consumption in community
scale (individuals per 10 km
multiplied by tons of
food per one individual during the year) because rumi
The Effect of Quantitative Variables of Forage Vegetation
on the Structure of Ruminant Guilds
I. S. Sheremet’ev
Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Stoletiya Vladivostoka 159, Vladivostok, 690022 Russia
Received May 19, 2008
—An interrelation between the structure of ruminant guilds and forage species structure depend on
food consumption/supply proportion. The success in competition is determined not only by adaptive advan
tages of consumer species but also by their specific food benefits, which root in habitat vegetation structure.
It is proposed that consumer coexistence in the chronologically former guilds is rather neutral for lack of con
siderable benefits and advantages. Inversely, some species of further guilds are able to dominate others using
adaptive advantages more than food benefits of pastures. Resource shortage and competition in consumer
guilds may be an indicator of community transformation or at least feature of guild novelty.
: competition, ruminants, herbivorous, forage plants, community.