ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2008, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 418–424. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2008.
Original Russian Text © A.P. Simchuk, 2008, published in Genetika, 2008, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 488–495.
It is known that the adaptive value of a particular
genotype can vary depending on the environmental
conditions. In this case, environment comprises not
only the abiotic factors, but also all the living organisms
that interact with a particular individual in a direct or
indirect manner. The living organisms not only adapt to
the environmental conditions, but also, being involved
in the biological turnover of the matter, change it to a
Recent data suggest that the character and speciﬁc
features of such changes depend to a signiﬁcant degree
on the intrapopulation genetic variation of the species
constituting an ecosystem . In particular, the genetic
variation of poplar inﬂuenced the mineralization of soil
nitrogen , the species composition and density of
arthropods inhabiting it, and even the efﬁciency of pop-
ulation control of these arthropods by birds . The
genetic variation of Turkey oak inﬂuenced essentially
the ﬂows of oxygen and nitrogen in the ecosystem .
The variation of downy oak determined by RAPD–
PCR assay inﬂuenced the turnover of certain heavy
Thus, the intraspecies genetic variation of one spe-
cies can contribute to a certain degree to formation of
the existence conditions for other species within the
sphere of its inﬂuence. This statement formed the basis
for a new branch of genetics, which has got the name
community or ecosystem genetics. A special issue of
(vol. 84, no.3, 2003) was dedicated to the
debates on this problem.
Some of the issues of this new direction, for exam-
ple, the inheritance at the level of ecosystem and eco-
system selection [1, 3], cause certain skepticism,
whereas others, such as the concept of extended pheno-
type in terms of intraspecies genetic variation with eco-
system-level consequences, are more interesting. On
the whole, it seems that the research subject has not
been yet strictly deﬁned.
Genetics is perhaps one of the few biological disci-
plines, if not the only one, that studies virtually all the
levels of life organization. A particular genetic system
is studied at each of the following levels: gene, chromo-
some, individual genotype, and population gene pool.
A new direction can have the right to exist only when
its research subject covers a genetic system distinct
from those listed above.
One of the main criteria for identifying any system
is the existence of relationships between its elements.
Consequently, detection and examination of relation-
ships between the gene pools of the species interacting
in an ecosystem can form the basis for identiﬁcation of
a new level in the organization of genetic material.
Thus, the research subject in this work is the ques-
tion on the degree to which the variation of green oak
leafroller moth in the size-related traits connected with
adaptation corresponds to its genotype and to which, to
the genetic variation of oak.
The Effect of Fodder Plant Genotype on the Variation of Larval
Fitness Traits in Genotype Classes of Green Oak Leafroller Moth
A. P. Simchuk
Vernadsky Taurica National University, Simferopol, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, 95007 Ukraine;
Received December 14, 2006; in ﬁnal form, June 18, 2007
—The effect of genetic variation of oak (
L.) on the genotype
ﬁtness components in green oak leafroller moth larvae (
L.) at esterase (
) and protease
) loci was studied. The samples of larvae were collected from nine oak trees, whose genetic variation was
assayed by RAPD–PCR using primer OPA14. The contributions of the factors of oak species/genotype and
green oak leafroller moth genotype and their interaction to the variation of important size-related traits of the
larvae were evaluated by two-way ANOVA. It was shown that the same larval genotype can display maximum
ﬁtness on the trees of one species or genotype and minimum, on the trees of other species or genotype. The
interactions between the oak genotype and green oak leafroller moth genotype factors lead to the relationships
that appear in statistically signiﬁcant associations between genotype classes of green oak leafroller moth and
oak. These results are discussed from the standpoint of a recently developed new ﬁeld, community or ecosystem