This paper focus on physicochemical changes in bio-hydroxyapatite (BIO-HAp) from bovine femur obtained by calcination at high temperatures: 520–620 (each 20 °C) at 7.4 °C/min and from 700 to 1100 °C (each 100 °C) at three heating rates: 7.4, 9.9, and 11.1 °C/min. BIO-HAp samples were obtained using a multi-step process: cleaning, milling, hydrothermal process, calcination in an air atmosphere, and cooling in furnace air. Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP) showed that the presence of Mg, K, S, Ba, Zn, and Na, is not affected by the annealing temperature and heating rate. While Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images showed the continuous growth of the HAp crystals during the calcination process due to the coalescence phenomenon, and the Full Width at the Half Maximum for the X-ray patterns for temperatures up to 700 is affected by the annealing temperature and the heating rate. Through X-ray diffraction, thermal, and calorimetric analysis (TGA-DSC), a partial dehydroxylation of hydroxyapatite was found in samples calcined up to 900 °C for the three heating rates. Also, Ca/P molar ratio decreased for samples calcined up to 900 °C as a result of the dehydroxylation process. NaCaPO4, CaCO3, Ca3(PO4)2, MgO, and Ca(H2PO4)2 are some phases identified by X-ray diffraction; some of them are part of the bone and others were formed during the calcination process as a function of annealing temperature and heating rate, as it is the case for MgO.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine – Springer Journals
Published: May 2, 2018
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