The effect of canopy roughness density on the constitutive components of the dispersive stresses

The effect of canopy roughness density on the constitutive components of the dispersive stresses How to represent the effects of variable canopy morphology on turbulence remains a fundamental challenge yet to be confronted. Planar averaging over some minimal area can be applied to average-out this sort of spatial variability in the time-averaged mean momentum balance. Because of the multiply connected air-spaces, spatial averaging gives rise to covariance or dispersive stress terms that are produced by the spatial correlations of the time-averaged quantities. These terms are “unclosed” and require parameterization, which to date remains lacking due to the absence of data. Here, flume experiments were conducted to quantify the magnitude and sign of the dispersive stresses for a cylindric canopy where the rod density was varied but the individual rod dimensions (rod height h c and rod diameter d r) remained the same. Quadrant analysis was used to explore the genesis of their spatial coherency inside the canopy for a wide range of rod densities. When compared to the conventional turbulent stresses, these dispersive stresses can be significant in the lowest layers of sparse canopies. For dense canopies, the dispersive terms remain negligible when compared to the conventional momentum fluxes at all the canopy levels consistent with previous experiments in vegetated and urban canopies. It was also shown that the spatial locations contributing most to the dispersive terms were in the immediate vicinity downstream of the rods. In the deeper layers of sparse canopies, these positions contributed large and negative stresses, but in the upper levels of the canopy, they contributed large but positive stresses. Because the longitudinal velocity spatial perturbation $$({\bar{u}}^{\prime\prime})$$ behind the rods is negative, the switch in sign in these stresses was connected with the sign of the vertical velocity spatial perturbation $$({\bar{w}}^{\prime\prime}).$$ Simplified scaling arguments, using a reduced mean continuity equation and the vertical mean momentum balance for the flow field near the rods, offer clues as to why $${\bar{w}}^{\prime\prime} > 0$$ in much of the lower canopy levels (about 0.75 h c ) while $${\bar{w}}^{\prime\prime} < 0$$ in the upper canopy levels. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Experiments in Fluids Springer Journals

The effect of canopy roughness density on the constitutive components of the dispersive stresses

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/the-effect-of-canopy-roughness-density-on-the-constitutive-components-2A0ZQ0Ysdw
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 by Springer-Verlag
Subject
Engineering; Engineering Fluid Dynamics; Fluid- and Aerodynamics; Engineering Thermodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer
ISSN
0723-4864
eISSN
1432-1114
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00348-008-0467-7
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial