The delay of flowering time in almond: a review of the combined effect of adaptation, mutation and breeding

The delay of flowering time in almond: a review of the combined effect of adaptation, mutation... Regulation of flowering time in almond, as in other Prunus species, is a complex process involving both chill and heat requirements. Following exposure to appropriate consecutive periods of cold and warm temperatures, the buds break dormancy and sprout or flower depending on bud type. To maximize flowering and subsequent vegetative growth and fruit set, chilling and ensuing warm temperature requirements have to be fully satisfied. Because of its potential for very early flowering, flowering time in almond is a major determinant of its adaptation to new environments. In colder regions, Late-flowering is often necessary to avoid frost damage during and just after flowering. Consequently, the selection of delayed flowering times remains an important objective in almond improvement programs. Flowering time is considered a quantitative though highly heritable trait. In addition, a dominant gene (Late flowering, Lb), originally identified in a spontaneous mutation of the Californian almond cultivar ‘Nonpareil’, was also described. The objective of this review is a comparative analysis of the effects of regional adaptation, breeding and mutation on the delay of flowering time in new almond cultivars. Findings indicate that the adaptation of almonds from the Mediterranean basin to colder regions in Northern Europe and America has been mainly achieved through delayed flowering. These adapted late-flowering cultivars have usually been developed by selecting desired quantitative genes within each regional germplasm. Additional progress thus appears achievable with a more comprehensive understanding of the quantitative and qualitative genetics controlling this trait. The use of molecular markers for the early selection of genes conferring late flowering, including both spontaneous mutations as well as unique regional germplasm, should allow development of even later cultivars including ultra-late cultivars flowering as into April. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Euphytica Springer Journals

The delay of flowering time in almond: a review of the combined effect of adaptation, mutation and breeding

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/the-delay-of-flowering-time-in-almond-a-review-of-the-combined-effect-XR4UOapi1z
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Subject
Life Sciences; Plant Sciences; Plant Genetics and Genomics; Plant Pathology; Plant Physiology; Biotechnology
ISSN
0014-2336
eISSN
1573-5060
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10681-017-1974-5
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Regulation of flowering time in almond, as in other Prunus species, is a complex process involving both chill and heat requirements. Following exposure to appropriate consecutive periods of cold and warm temperatures, the buds break dormancy and sprout or flower depending on bud type. To maximize flowering and subsequent vegetative growth and fruit set, chilling and ensuing warm temperature requirements have to be fully satisfied. Because of its potential for very early flowering, flowering time in almond is a major determinant of its adaptation to new environments. In colder regions, Late-flowering is often necessary to avoid frost damage during and just after flowering. Consequently, the selection of delayed flowering times remains an important objective in almond improvement programs. Flowering time is considered a quantitative though highly heritable trait. In addition, a dominant gene (Late flowering, Lb), originally identified in a spontaneous mutation of the Californian almond cultivar ‘Nonpareil’, was also described. The objective of this review is a comparative analysis of the effects of regional adaptation, breeding and mutation on the delay of flowering time in new almond cultivars. Findings indicate that the adaptation of almonds from the Mediterranean basin to colder regions in Northern Europe and America has been mainly achieved through delayed flowering. These adapted late-flowering cultivars have usually been developed by selecting desired quantitative genes within each regional germplasm. Additional progress thus appears achievable with a more comprehensive understanding of the quantitative and qualitative genetics controlling this trait. The use of molecular markers for the early selection of genes conferring late flowering, including both spontaneous mutations as well as unique regional germplasm, should allow development of even later cultivars including ultra-late cultivars flowering as into April.

Journal

EuphyticaSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 1, 2017

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off