ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2009, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 370–375. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2009.
Original Russian Text © M.O. Radzhabov, I.A. Mamaev, I.A. Shamov, D.G. Gasaev, Yu.V. Shneider, 2009, published in Genetika, 2009, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 420–426.
The patterns of gene pool formation and variation
give a clue to understanding the development of its
structure in the course of the development of the system
of the entire human population and regional systems of
indigenous ethnic groups.
A gene pool is a system of genes that has been
formed and organized in the course of history and
remains relatively stable with time. The genetic history
of an ethnic group is reﬂected in its characteristic gene
pool structure and the position of the gene pool relative
to those of hierarchically higher and lower population
groups. Therefore, study of the gene pool of an ethnic
group should not be restricted to the estimation of gene
frequencies, analysis of the population gene composi-
tion, determination of genetic equilibrium and genetic
distances, etc. It is also necessary to take into consider-
ation the place of the ethnic group in the hierarchical
system of human populations.
The genetic stability of a population increases with
an increase in the historical and geographical hierarchi-
cal level of the population system .
Subdivided populations are characterized by a
capacity for maintaining a considerably higher genetic
diversity compared to panmictic populations of compa-
rable sizes [2, 3]. It is believed that this high diversity
allows a subdivided population to efﬁciently respond to
environmental changes by changing their genetic struc-
Genetic processes in ethnically and geographically
subdivided genetic isolates under changing environ-
mental conditions are known to be considerably more
rapid than in heterogeneous populations [4–7].
The complex hierarchy of the population structure
of Daghestan ethnic groups is reﬂected by the frame-
work of the Daghestan gene pool system, which is its
ethnic composition bearing undoubted signs of unique-
ness and integrity preserved in the course of its natural
and ethnic historical development. Archeological data
indicate that Daghestan mountains were populated
more than 10000 years ago [8–10], about 30 indige-
nous ethnic groups living there today.
A number of genetic markers have been analyzed in
many studies on Daghestan ethnic groups, which
makes it possible to determine the places of the gene
pools of Daghestan ethnic groups in the gene pool
structures of the Caucasus and the entire world [11–17].
At the same time, the genetic structure of the unique
ethnic diversity and its relationship with the world eth-
nic genetic history is yet to be understood, as is the
degree of genetic differentiation within individual eth-
nic groups of Daghestan.
The Daghestan Gene Pool: Interethnic and Intraethnic
Differentiation of Eight Aboriginal Ethnic Groups: Analysis
Based on Data on the AB0 Erythrocyte Antigen Systems
M. O. Radzhabov
, I. A. Mamaev
, I. A. Shamov
, D. G. Gasaev
, and Yu. V. Shneider
Daghestan State University, Makhachkala, 367001 Daghestan, Russia;
Ministry of Health of the Republic of Daghestan, Makhachkala, 367013 Daghestan, Russia
Daghestan State Medical Academy, Makhachkala, 367000 Daghestan, Russia
Daghestan Republican Central Clinical Hospital, Makhachkala, 367010 Daghestan, Russia
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Received December 14, 2007
—Analysis of the genetic variation of eight aboriginal Daghestan ethnic groups based on data on the
AB0 and Rhesus blood groups has been carried out in a total sample of 18348 subjects. The degree of genetic
) and the levels of intraethnic (
) and interethnic (
) variations of Daghestan ethnic
groups have been estimated at two hierarchical levels of the population system. Prevalence of intraethnic diver-
sity over interethnic one has been found in Daghestan populations. The parameters of subdivision of Daghestan
populations were compared with those for the populations of all other regions of the Caucasus and the Pamir.
The population subdivision of ethnic groups of Daghestan and other regions of the Caucasus is lower than that
of Pamir ethnic groups.