ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 37–44. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2014.
Original Russian Text © B.R. Kuluev, A.V. Knyazev, B.N. Postrigan, A.V. Chemeris, 2014, published in Genetika, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 44–51.
One of the perspective trends in modern phytode
sign is the cultivation of large plants in miniature.
However, the cultivation of such plants usually
requires much time and effort. Modern technologies
for the geneengineering of plants can reduce the time
period required for the creation of dwarf plants.
According to the data in the literature, a reduction of
organ size was observed when the expression level of
some plant genes was changed [1, 2].
The organ size of plants depends on the regulation
of cell division and cell expansion. In plants, such
AINTEGUMENTA, ARGOS, CYCLIND3; 1,
and many others participate
in the regulation of cell division . The
codes a transmembrane pro
tein, which participates in signal transduction from
phytohormones to transcription factors . It is
known that the signals from the ARGOS protein are
transduced to the gene of the
transcription factor, which in turn controls cell divi
sion in the germs of overground organs . It was
shown that an increase in the level of expression of
gene, and the
gene promotes an increase in the sizes of all over
ground organs because of the prolonged meristematic
competence of cells in the anlages of organs, which
leads to an increase in the quantity of cells per organ.
A decrease in the level of the expression of these genes
promotes the reduction of the sizes of
overground organs [1, 4].
In plant tissues, expansins, endogluconases, xylo
glucan endotransglycosylases, and a number of trans
membrane proteins and transcription factors also par
ticipate in the regulation of cell expansion .
According to data in the literature, an increase in the
level of expansin expression, for example, can lead to
an increase in organ size. The
are transgenic in the
gene are characterized
by an increase in both the length of the petiole and the
area of the leaf plate . At the same time, the trans
genic plants expressing a part of the
antisense orientation are characterized by a reduction
of organ size. In plants, expansins are coded by a mul
tigene family of genes. At present, in the tobacco
plant, for example, six genes of expansins (named
, with serial numbers from one to six) were
identified, and the nucleotide sequences of these genes
are available in
These data allow us to assume that a decrease in the
level of the expression of the
and the expansin
genes will promote a reduction of the organ size of
transgenic plants. In the first case, this is due to the
reduction of cell quantity, and in the second it is
because of a decrease in cell size.
One of the most effective strategies for the suppres
sion of plant gene expression at the posttranscriptional
level is RNAinterference . For this purpose, a short
part of the target gene, either in sense orientation or in
antisense orientation in relation to the promoter, is
cloned, and the plant is exposed to transformation.
Such works are performed mainly with such a model
. There is little literature data
about the functioning of the geneengineered con
structions in other plants. Because the genomes of
many plants are not sequenced and the cloning of the
genes of each plant takes some time, the creation of
universal geneengineering constructions that will
function in many dicotyledons is of special interest.
The created geneengineering constructions have to
The Creation of Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing Fragments
Genes in Antisense Orientation
B. R. Kuluev, A. V. Knyazev, B. N. Postrigan, and A. V. Chemeris
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of Ufa Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, 450054 Russia
Received June 5, 2013
—Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the fragments of the
genes in antisense
orientation have been created. Eleven lines of transgenic plants were investigated and five of them were char
acterized by a decrease in the sizes of the leaves and flowers as compared to control. Stem sizes decreased
when only the
gene fragment was used. The organ size of the experimental plants decreased because
of a reduction in the level of both cell division and cell expansion. Two lines of transgenic tobacco plants
expressing the part of the
gene in antisense orientation were characterized by a reduction in the level