ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2011, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 364–369. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © I.M. Kotel’nikova, 2011, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2011, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 296–301.
In recent years, endocannabinoids are recognized
as one of main regulators of lipid metabolism in ani
mals, humans, and other eukaryotes . They are
endogenous products of tissue metabolism in animals
and plants, which are capable of activation of a single
or two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, membrane
proteins, the target of
action. The first endogenous ligand of cannabinoid
receptors, Narachidonylethanolamine (anand
amine), was revealed in 1992 . At present, other
molecular species of Nacylethanolamines (NAEs)
are found in animals; they manifest a wide spectrum of
biological activity and are involved in many physiolog
ical and pathological processes [1, 3].
In plants, NAEs were found in dry and germinating
seeds and seedlings . The content of NAEs in the
seeds of most plants is less than 1
g/g fr wt, although
in some legumes, it attains 44.6
g/g fr wt . Plant
NAEs control growth and play the role of signal mole
cules in the response to stresses: abiotic (anoxia, imbi
bition/dehydration) and phytopathogen attack .
In the cells of living organisms, NAEs are produced
from membrane phospholipids, Nacylphosphati
dylethanolamines (NAPEs) (Fig. 1) [1, 3, 4]. In nor
mal cells and tissues of mammals, Nacylethanol
amine phospholipids comprise less than 0.1% of total
phospholipids . It is believed that in animals
NAPEs fulfill primarily cytoprotectory properties and
also play the role as signaling molecules in the
endocannabinoid system . It should be noted that
NAPE biological role was less characterized than the
role of NAEs, although the NAPE role in the organ
ism should be important if for no other reason that
these phospholipids are precursors of NAEs.
In contrast, in plant tissues NAPEs are widely
spread under normal physiological conditions . It is
The Content of NAcylphosphatidylethanolamines in the Seeds
of Cultivated Plants and Grain Products
I. M. Kotel’nikova
Institute of Geology and Natural Management, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Relochnyi per. 1, 675000 Blagoveshchensk, Russia;
Received April 8, 2010
—The content of the minor class of phospholipids, Nacylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) in
mature seeds of cultivated plants: kidney bean (
L.), soybean (
(L.) Merr.), soft
spring wheat (
L. emend. Fiori et Paol), barley (
L.), and oat (
and the products of technological processing of grain cultures (floor, bran) was studied. Reliable NAPE iden
tification was performed by a comparison of their chromatographic mobility with the marker NAPE sample
from wheat flour and synthetic phosphatidylmethanol, and also using specific reagents. Kidney bean cv.
Shchedraya seeds contained the highest amount of NAPEs. In legumes, the content of NAPEs varied not
only in different species but also in different cultivars of a single species. In cereals, the highest NAPE content
was detected in the barley seeds and best quality wheat flour. The content of NAPEs in cereal seeds was less
variable than in legumes. NAPE quantification showed that accumulation of this phospholipid class occurred
in parallel with accumulation of total phospholipids in seeds. The relation between NAPE content and the
processes of seed development and their lipid composition is discussed. The seeds and products best suitable
for NAPE isolation are recommended.
Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Avena sativa, Amaranthus tri
, seeds, phospholipids, Nacylphosphatidylethanolamines, thin layer chromatography.
: NAE—Nacylethanolamine; NAPE—Nacylphos
phatidylethanolamine; PC—phosphatidylcholine; PEA—phos
NH C R
Formula of Nacylphosphatidylethanolamine.
, and R
are residues of FAs.