Arch Virol (2005) 150: 2287–2298
The complete nucleotide sequence and genome
organization of tomato chlorosis virus
W. M. Wintermantel
, G. C. Wisler
, A. G. Anchieta
, H.-Y. Liu
A. V. Karasev
, and I. E. Tzanetakis
USDA-ARS, Salinas, California, U.S.A.
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University,
Doylestown, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University,
Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.
Received February 3, 2005; accepted April 28, 2005
Published online July 8, 2005
Summary. The crinivirus tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) was discovered ini-
tially in diseased tomato and has since been identiﬁed as a serious problem
for tomato production in many parts of the world, particularly in the United
States, Europe and Southeast Asia. The complete nucleotide sequence of ToCV
was determined and compared with related crinivirus species. RNA 1 is or-
ganized into four open reading frames (ORFs), and encodes proteins involved
in replication, based on homology to other viral replication factors. RNA 2 is
composed of nine ORFs including genes that encode a HSP70 homolog and
two proteins involved in encapsidation of viral RNA, referred to as the coat
protein and minor coat protein. Sequence homology between ToCV and other
criniviruses varies throughout the viral genome. The minor coat protein (CPm)
of ToCV, which forms part of the “rattlesnake tail” of virions and may be in-
volved in determining the unique, broad vector transmissibility of ToCV, is larger
than the CPm of lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) by 217 amino acids.
Among sequenced criniviruses, considerable variability exists in the size of some
viral proteins. Analysis of these differences with respect to biological function
may provide insight into the role crinivirus proteins play in virus infection and
The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank
nucleotide sequence database and have been assigned the accession numbers AY903447 and