The complement system as a biomarker of disease activity and response to treatment in multiple sclerosis

The complement system as a biomarker of disease activity and response to treatment in multiple... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. The complement system has an established role in the pathogenesis of MS, and evidence suggests that its components can be used as biomarkers of disease-state activity and response to treatment in MS. Plasma C4a levels have been found to be significantly elevated in patients with active relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), as compared to both controls and patients with stable RRMS. C3 levels are also significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with RRMS, and C3 levels are correlated with clinical disability. Furthermore, increased levels of factor H can predict the transition from relapsing to progressive disease, since factor H levels have been found to increase progressively with disease progression over a 2-year period in patients transitioning from RRMS to secondary progressive (SP) MS. In addition, elevations in C3 are seen in primary progressive (PP) MS. Complement components can also differentiate RRMS from neuromyelitis optica. Response gene to complement (RGC)-32, a novel molecule induced by complement activation, is a possible biomarker of relapse and response to glatiramer acetate (GA) therapy, since RGC-32 mRNA expression is significantly decreased during relapse and increased in responders to GA treatment. The predictive accuracy of RGC-32 as a potential biomarker (by ROC analysis) is 90% for detecting relapses and 85% for detecting a response to GA treatment. Thus, complement components can serve as biomarkers of disease activity to differentiate MS subtypes and to measure response to therapy. Immunologic Research Springer Journals

The complement system as a biomarker of disease activity and response to treatment in multiple sclerosis

Loading next page...
Springer US
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Medicine & Public Health; Allergology; Immunology; Medicine/Public Health, general; Internal Medicine
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial