The chimeric cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel ATCNGC11/12 constitutively induces programmed cell death in a Ca2+ dependent manner

The chimeric cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel ATCNGC11/12 constitutively induces programmed... The hypersensitive response (HR) involves programmed cell death (PCD) in response to pathogen infection. To investigate the pathogen resistance signaling pathway, we previously identified the Arabidopsis mutant cpr22, which displays constitutive activation of multiple defense responses including HR like cell death. The cpr22 mutation has been identified as a 3 kb deletion that fuses two cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC)-encoding genes, ATCNGC11 and ATCNGC12, to generate a novel chimeric gene, ATCNGC11/12. In this study, we conducted a characterization of cell death induced by transient expression of ATCNGC11/12 in Nicotiana benthamiana. Electron microscopic analysis of this cell death showed similar characteristics to PCD, such as plasma membrane shrinkage and vesicle formation. The hallmark of animal PCD, fragmentation of nuclear DNA, was also observed in ATCNGC11/12-induced cell death. The development of cell death was significantly suppressed by caspase-1 inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of caspases in this process. Recently, vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) was isolated as the first plant caspase-like protein, which is involved in HR development. In VPE-silenced plants development of cell death induced by ATCNGC11/12 was much slower and weaker compared to control plants, suggesting the involvement of VPE as a caspase in ATCNGC11/12-induced cell death. Complementation analysis using a Ca2+ uptake deficient yeast mutant demonstrated that the ATCNGC11/12 channel is permeable to Ca2+. Additionally, calcium channel blockers such as GdCl3 inhibited ATCNGC11/12-induced HR formation, whereas potassium channel blockers did not. Taken together, these results indicate that the cell death that develops in the cpr22 mutant is indeed PCD and that the chimeric channel, ATCNGC11/12, is at the point of, or up-stream of the calcium signal necessary for the development of HR. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Plant Molecular Biology Springer Journals

The chimeric cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel ATCNGC11/12 constitutively induces programmed cell death in a Ca2+ dependent manner

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/the-chimeric-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-ion-channel-atcngc11-12-iEP3HCgPRx
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Subject
Life Sciences; Plant Pathology; Biochemistry, general; Plant Sciences
ISSN
0167-4412
eISSN
1573-5028
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11103-007-9239-7
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The hypersensitive response (HR) involves programmed cell death (PCD) in response to pathogen infection. To investigate the pathogen resistance signaling pathway, we previously identified the Arabidopsis mutant cpr22, which displays constitutive activation of multiple defense responses including HR like cell death. The cpr22 mutation has been identified as a 3 kb deletion that fuses two cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC)-encoding genes, ATCNGC11 and ATCNGC12, to generate a novel chimeric gene, ATCNGC11/12. In this study, we conducted a characterization of cell death induced by transient expression of ATCNGC11/12 in Nicotiana benthamiana. Electron microscopic analysis of this cell death showed similar characteristics to PCD, such as plasma membrane shrinkage and vesicle formation. The hallmark of animal PCD, fragmentation of nuclear DNA, was also observed in ATCNGC11/12-induced cell death. The development of cell death was significantly suppressed by caspase-1 inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of caspases in this process. Recently, vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) was isolated as the first plant caspase-like protein, which is involved in HR development. In VPE-silenced plants development of cell death induced by ATCNGC11/12 was much slower and weaker compared to control plants, suggesting the involvement of VPE as a caspase in ATCNGC11/12-induced cell death. Complementation analysis using a Ca2+ uptake deficient yeast mutant demonstrated that the ATCNGC11/12 channel is permeable to Ca2+. Additionally, calcium channel blockers such as GdCl3 inhibited ATCNGC11/12-induced HR formation, whereas potassium channel blockers did not. Taken together, these results indicate that the cell death that develops in the cpr22 mutant is indeed PCD and that the chimeric channel, ATCNGC11/12, is at the point of, or up-stream of the calcium signal necessary for the development of HR.

Journal

Plant Molecular BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Sep 21, 2007

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve Freelancer

DeepDyve Pro

Price
FREE
$49/month

$360/year
Save searches from Google Scholar, PubMed
Create lists to organize your research
Export lists, citations
Access to DeepDyve database
Abstract access only
Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles
Print
20 pages/month
PDF Discount
20% off