1063-7397/05/3405- © 2005 MAIK “Nauka /Interperiodica”
Russian Microelectronics, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2005, pp. 269–271. Translated from Mikroelektronika, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2005, pp. 323–326.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Telets.
Integrated circuits (ICs) opened up new vistas for
the design of ground, air, naval, and space weapons sys-
tems. The Ministry of Defense (MOD) has therefore
been actively involved in the development of the
national microelectronics from its beginnings.
In the early 1960s the Soviet government issued a
whole series of decrees aimed at creating a research and
manufacturing base for the microelectronics industry in
the USSR. Incorporated in these documents were pro-
posals formulated by prominent military theorists and
technical experts of the MOD’s 22 TsNIII research
institute, particularly by V.P. Balashov, I.I. Morozov,
V.N. Sretenskii, I.E. Eﬁmov, I.G. Bergel’son, and
As part of this initiative, the Microelectronics
Department of the Institute was formed in Zelenograd,
Moscow oblast, in 1962. It was originally headed by
Prof. Eﬁmov, Dr. Sci. (Tech.), with B.N. Kireev being
his deputy; the heads of the constituent laboratories
were D.N. Porto, V.N. Popov, and G.I. Rukman.
In 1967, Eﬁmov took up the position of Deputy
Head of the Research Center for Microelectronics in
Zelenograd. In recognition of his contributions to the
industry, he was subsequently awarded the USSR State
Prize and promoted to the rank of major-general.
The second head of the Microelectronics Department
was E.F. Krymskii.
In the mid-1960s the Department was strengthened
by military-academy graduates including P.A. Aru-
tyunov, A.V. Bayukov, M.A. Bedrekovskii, M.F. Bez-
zubov, E.I. Berednikov, E.N. Bosikh, K.K. Doro-
shevich, N.S. Kruchinkin, V.A. Savel’ev, A.A. Tyukhin,
V.V. Shebanin, and Yu.G. Shchebarov. Later, they
became recognized experts and team leaders, and some
of them were appointed directors of organizations
within the MOD or defense-industry ministries.
The Institute worked in close cooperation with other
research institutes, including ones of the USSR Acad-
emy of Sciences, and with industrial enterprises located
in the capitals of constituent republics and in Zeleno-
grad, Leningrad, Novosibirsk, Voronezh, Bryansk,
Kaluga, Pavlovski Posad, etc.
A major task undertaken by the Institute was draw-
ing up, with the assistance of industrial experts, a set of
MOD regulatory documents concerning different
aspects of ICs: design, fabrication processes, certiﬁable
parameters, acceptance, storage, testing, and functional
As a result, the ﬁrst national standards for defense
ICs were set in 1970–1971.
Initially the Institute dealt with ICs of small- and
medium-scale integration, but a growing demand for
functional capability stimulated the development of
more complex ICs. Another requirement was higher
resistance to external factors.
These problems were ﬁrst solved by introducing
micromodule and hybrid-IC technology. Important
contributions to this ﬁeld were made by Doroshevich,
Popov, K.V. Lebedev, Tyukhin, and A.Ya. Krimshtein.
A range of hybrid ICs, as well as fabrication processes,
was thus designed; this work was awarded the USSR
Furthermore, the expertise gained by the Institute
proved to be instrumental in the development of
microassemblies and multichip modules.
In the late 1960s the efforts of the Microelectronics
Department were aimed toward establishing a concep-
tual framework for product-range deﬁnition and man-
agement and for IC performance evaluation. The
Department also monitored worldwide progress in
The early 1970s saw the beginnings of monolithic
differential- and operational-ampliﬁer technology (typ-
iﬁed by the 122 and 140 series from the NIIME
research institute in Zelenograd).
It was in this period that the USSR ﬁrst produced
ICs measuring up to the highest international standards,
some models showing unrivaled performance. The
Institute occupied a signiﬁcant role in evaluating the
results of research-and-development projects, and
much of the success should be credited to its well-
thought-out strategy toward the development of the
microelectronics industry, including the realistic
assessment of the potential of the enterprises involved.
In the mid-1970s the Institute embarked on major
programs aimed at creating large-scale-integration
(LSI) and very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) circuits
for microprocessor, digital, radio-frequency (RF), and
analog-to-digital-conversion (ADC) and digital-to-ana-
log-conversion (DAC) applications. The impetus for
these lines of research came from the need for advanced
The 50th Anniversary of the Ministry of Defense’s
22 TsNIII Research Institute:
Its Contributions to the National Microelectronics