Tensile overpressure compartments on low-angle thrust faults

Tensile overpressure compartments on low-angle thrust faults Hydrothermal extension veins form by hydraulic fracturing under triaxial stress (principal compressive stresses, σ 1 > σ 2 > σ 3) when the pore-fluid pressure, P f, exceeds the least compressive stress by the rock’s tensile strength. Such veins form perpendicular to σ 3, their incremental precipitation from hydrothermal fluid often reflected in ‘crack-seal’ textures, demonstrating that the tensile overpressure state, σ 3′ = (σ 3 − P f) < 0, was repeatedly met. Systematic arrays of extension veins develop locally in both sub-metamorphic and metamorphic assemblages defining tensile overpressure compartments where at some time P f > σ 3. In compressional regimes (σ v = σ 3), subhorizontal extension veins may develop over vertical intervals <1 km or so below low-permeability sealing horizons with tensile strengths 10 < T o < 20 MPa. This is borne out by natural vein arrays. For a low-angle thrust, the vertical interval where the tensile overpressure state obtains may continue down-dip over distances of several kilometres in some instances. The overpressure condition for hydraulic fracturing is comparable to that needed for frictional reshear of a thrust fault lying close to the maximum compression, σ 1. Under these circumstances, especially where the shear zone material has varying competence (tensile strength), affecting the failure mode, dilatant fault–fracture mesh structures may develop throughout a tabular rock volume. Evidence for the existence of fault–fracture meshes around low-angle thrusts comes from exhumed ancient structures and from active structures. In the case of megathrust ruptures along subduction interfaces, force balance analyses, lack of evidence for shear heating, and evidence of total shear stress release during earthquakes suggest the interfaces are extremely weak (τ < 40 MPa), consistent with weakening by near-lithostatically overpressured fluids. Portions of the subduction interface, especially towards the down-dip termination of the seismogenic megathrust, are prone to episodes of slow-slip, non-volcanic tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, very-low-frequency earthquakes, etc., attributable to the activation of tabular fault–fracture meshes at low σ 3′ around the thrust interface. Containment of near-lithostatic overpressures in such settings is precarious, fluid loss curtailing mesh activity.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Earth, Planets and Space Springer Journals

Tensile overpressure compartments on low-angle thrust faults

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/tensile-overpressure-compartments-on-low-angle-thrust-faults-K50E6nlEXe
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s)
Subject
Earth Sciences; Earth Sciences, general; Geology; Geophysics/Geodesy
eISSN
1880-5981
D.O.I.
10.1186/s40623-017-0699-y
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial